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Posts Tagged ‘UNIVERSITY’

Caught on tape: Muscle stem cells captured on video

In STEM CELLS - 101 on May 6, 2010 at 1:21 pm

Caught on tape: Muscle stem cells captured on video

May 6, 2010

When muscle tissue experiences trauma or disease, such as muscular dystrophy, stem cells in the muscle known as “satellite cells” respond to repair and regenerate the muscle. These cells are particularly important in neuromuscular diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, which affect muscle stability and repair. Now, University of Missouri researchers have used time-lapse photography to document satellite cell movements and behaviors when they interact with their ‘host’ myofiber. Scientists hope that if they can understand more about what satellite cells do in healthy muscle, obstacles to cell or gene therapies for muscular dystrophy might be overcome.

“We have been trying to understand what’s happening in these cells using the technology we have, which basically lets us take one snap shot per cell,” said Dawn Cornelison, assistant professor of biological sciences in the College of Arts and Science and investigator in the Bond Life Sciences Center. “That’s like taking one picture per game of a series of different football games and trying to use them to figure out the rules of football. This new technology is like watching the football game on TV. Now, we can see what’s going on with groups of cells over time, how they move, how they’re related and what kinds of different things they do. We were really surprised by a lot of things we saw because we never expected them to act that way.”

TOO VIEW THE VIDEO, CLICK HERE

University of Missouri researchers have used time-lapse photography to document satellite cell movements and behaviors when they interact with their “host” myofiber. Credit: Video courtesy of Dawn Cornelison

are small and rare, and only become active in specific conditions associated with damage or disease. Once activated, they multiply, establishing a large population of replacement cells in the , then differentiate to replace or repair damaged muscle. Patients with Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy have so fragile that simply moving or breathing causes them to tear. While the satellite cells do a good job repairing this damage in early childhood, the cells eventually fall behind. Because this is a genetic disease, the new muscle made from the satellite cells has the same defect, so even the repaired doesn’t last long. Without repair, the muscles in these patients eventually stop working. In the severest form, this disease is fatal by early adulthood.

Since 1989, scientists and physicians have tried to use transplanted satellite cells from healthy donors as a therapy for , but have had very little success. One major problem with therapies being tried now is that the transplanted cells never move away from the site where they are injected, so patients require a large number of injections over a very small area, up to 4,000 injections in a single individual.

“Previous studies had little data about how satellite cells moved, and many scientists thought that satellite cells didn’t move,” Cornelison said. “The time-lapse videomicroscopy showed that they can and do move. Some cells travel a few centimeters in a day. Now, we can ask things like ‘is it important for them to be able to move?’, ‘where are they going?’, ‘what factors do they need to tell them where and how to move?’ and ‘what are the cells saying to each other?’ Hopefully, the answers to these questions will help us think of ways to improve satellite cell therapies. For example, it would be wonderful if we could just tell all the cells in a transplant to move away from where they were injected, so they wouldn’t be overcrowded and die.”

More information: The study, “3D Time-lapse Analysis of Muscle Satellite Cell Motility,” was published in Stem Cells.

Provided by University of Missouri-Columbia

via Caught on tape: Muscle stem cells captured on video.

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Scientists discover the secret of ageing

In ALL ARTICLES on February 16, 2010 at 1:35 pm
Scientists discover the secret of ageing

By Clive Cookson in London

Published: February 15 2010 23:00 | Last updated: February 15 2010 23:00

One of the biggest puzzles in biology – how and why living cells age – has been solved by an international team based at Newcastle University, in north-east England.

The answer is complex, and will not produce an elixir of eternal life in the foreseeable future.

But the scientists expect better drugs for age-related illnesses, such as diabetes and heart disease, to emerge from their discovery of the biochemical pathway involved in ageing.

The Newcastle team, working with the University of Ulm in Germany, used a comprehensive “systems biology” approach, involving computer modelling and experiments with cell cultures and genetically modified mice, to investigate why cells become senescent. In this aged state, cells stop dividing and the tissues they make up show physical signs of deterioration, from wrinkling skin to a failing heart.

Adult Stem Cells Reverse Heart Attack Damage

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 6, 2010 at 9:41 am

Proven safe and effective Repair Stem Cell Treatments for heart disease have been performed around the world for over half a decade. https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/10/10/do-stem-cell-treatments-work/

Can Repair Stem Cell Treatments help your heart disease?

Adult stem-cell therapy continues to prove useful for treating heart disease patients, according to researchers at the Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute at the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine.

The study found that injecting stem cells into patients within 10 days of a heart attack could repair heart damage.

Researchers said it could be several years before there are federally approved cardiac stem-cell therapies [IN THE US].

Wesley J. Smith, senior fellow in human rights and bioethics at the Discovery Institute, said it demonstrates the effectiveness of stem cells that do not require the destruction of human embryos.

“It is a tremendous potential victory for medical science,” he said.

Jeff Karp, assistant professor at the Harvard Medical School, explained that the process may eliminate the need for drugs.

“You can take mesenchymal stem cells from one person,” he said, “implant them or inject them into another person and not require any matching or immune-suppressive drugs.”

via Illinois Federation for Right to Life: NEWS SHORTS FOR FRIDAY.

University of Edinburgh study paves way for stem cell library » The Journal

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on October 29, 2009 at 2:15 am

University of Edinburgh study paves way for stem cell library

https://i1.wp.com/www.hepfoundation.org.nz/images/liver2.jpg

Research could revolutionise the development of drugs to treat diseases and pave way for the creation of a library of liver cells

by Chris Grainger –  Wednesday 28 October 2009, The Journal Issue 26

Scientists have, for the first time, produced liver cells from adult stem cells using technology called iPSC, or induced pluripotent stem cell.

Using either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, the Gamm lab created aggregates of early retinal cells (green spheres). The blue spheres are early brain cells. Photo: Special arrangement - University of Wisconsin

Using induced pluripotent stem cells, aggregates of early retinal cells (green spheres) are created. The blue spheres are early brain cells. Photo: Special arrangement - University of Wisconsin

The liver cells were created by manipulating the skin cells to resemble embryonic stem cells, which have the ability to become different cells within the body.

The study, led by the University of Edinburgh’s Medical Research Council Centre for Regenerative Medicine, makes possible the creation of a liver cell library, which could revolutionise the development of drugs, making them more efficient and safe.

https://i1.wp.com/www.meritas.net/uploaded/school_graphics/Edinburgh_University.jpg

University of Edinburgh

via University of Edinburgh study paves way for stem cell library » The Journal.

Duke U. Mends Broken Hearts

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on October 11, 2009 at 5:40 pm

FYI:

Duke University research is predated by the cardiac research by Prof Doris Taylor.  In 2005, Dr Taylor rinses rat hearts with detergent until the cells washed away and all that remained was a skeleton of tissue translucent as wax paper. She then injected the scaffold with fresh heart (stem) cells from newborn rats.  Four days later, “We could see these little areas that were beginning to beat.  By eight days, we could see the whole heart beating.”  The experiment, reported in the journal Nature Medicine, marked the first time scientists had created a functioning heart in the lab from biological tissue.

Duke U. Mends Broken Hearts

By mimicking the way embryonic stem cells develop into heart muscle in a lab, Duke University bioengineers believe they have taken an important first step toward growing a living “heart patch” to repair heart tissue damaged by disease.

https://i1.wp.com/www.pathology.unc.edu/faculty_labs/mack_lab/heart.jpg

In a series of experiments using mouse embryonic stem cells, the bioengineers used a novel mold of their own design to fashion a three-dimensional “patch” made up of heart muscle cells, known as cardiomyocytes. The new tissue exhibited the two most important attributes of heart muscle cells -– the ability to contract and to conduct electrical impulses. The mold looks much like a piece of Chex cereal in which researchers varied the shape and length of the pores to control the direction and orientation of the growing cells.

https://i1.wp.com/static-resources.goodguide.com/images/entities/all/221221.jpg

CHex Cereal

The researchers grew the cells in an environment much like that found in natural tissues. They encapsulated the cells within a gel composed of the blood-clotting protein fibrin, which provided mechanical support to the cells, allowing them to form a three-dimensional structure. They also found that the cardiomyocytes flourished only in the presence of a class of “helper” cells known as cardiac fibroblasts, which comprise as much as 60 percent of all cells present in a human heart.

https://i1.wp.com/www.immediart.com/catalog/images/big_images/SPL_6_P780110-Fibroblast_cells_showing_cytoskeleton.jpg

Fibroblast Cells

via New strategy for mending broken hearts? | Machines Like Us.

U. expert to lead stem cell research panel

In ALL ARTICLES on September 28, 2009 at 9:20 pm

U of UtahU. expert to lead stem cell research panel

University of Utah medical ethics expert Jeffrey R. Botkin has been named chairman of a new nine-member group that will act as a clearinghouse for science research project requests for embryonic stem cells.

Requests for the cells are expected to increase significantly with the lifting of restrictions imposed by the Bush administration on National Institutes of Health research guidelines that all but prohibited embryonic stem cells to be used in scientific research.

via Deseret News | U. expert to lead stem cell research panel.

Cerebral Palsy Improvement seen after stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on September 23, 2009 at 10:50 am

Cerebral Palsy

Dramatic cerebral palsy improvement seen after cord blood stem celll treatment

March 26th, 2008 by Donald Saiontz | PERMALINK

NBC’s Today Show recently reported on the story about a toddler with cerebral palsy, who experienced dramatic improvements in his disability following an experimental procedure involving a stem cell transplant. While still an unproven treatment, this provides hope that some children may be able to recover from cerebral palsy, or at least experience improvement of cerebral palsy symptoms.

Dallas Hextell, a 2-year-old from Sacramento, California, received an infusion of his own umbilical cord blood as part of a Duke University clinical trial. Within five days, he showed improvements in the limitations imposed by the condition, and his parents are hopeful that a cerebral palsy recovery, with no signs of the disability, may be possible for Dallas by the time he is 7-years-old.

video: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/23569985#23569985
via http://www.youhavealawyer.com/blog/2008/03/26/cerebral-palsy-improvement/

Final step of pluripotency pinpointed!

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on September 8, 2009 at 1:16 pm

Switching on the power of stem cells

21 August 2009

Scientists have uncovered a vital link in the chain of events that gives stem cells their remarkable properties.

Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research at the University of Cambridge have pinpointed the final step in a complex process that gives embryonic stem cells their unique ability to develop into any of the different types of cells in the body (from liver cells to skin cells). Their findings, published today in the journal Cell, have important implications for efforts to harness the power of stem cells for medical applications.

via University of Cambridge.

Medical News: ACC: Stem Cell Treatment May Help Repair MI Damage – in Meeting Coverage, ACC from MedPage Today

In ALL ARTICLES, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 4, 2009 at 2:19 am

This is great news from my alma mater…but they have been treating MI with adult stem cells successfully in thailand, germany, china for almost 10 yrs now.  Catch UP! -dg

burning_heart-547982

ACC: Stem Cell Treatment May Help Repair MI Damage

By Todd Neale, Staff Writer, MedPage Today, Published: April 02, 2009

Reviewed by Zalman S. Agus, MD; Emeritus Professor

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Earn CME/CE credit

ORLANDO, April 2 — An infusion of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells may improve outcomes for patients who suffer a severe myocardial infarction, a phase I study suggested.

Action Points:

* Explain to interested patients that the findings come from a phase I study, which is designed to assess safety and feasibility, not efficacy.

* Note that this study was published as an abstract and presented as a poster at a conference. These data and conclusions should be considered to be preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Patients who received the highest doses of enriched CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells in the affected vessel had increased perfusion of the infarct at six months (P=0.01), according to Arshed Quyyumi, M.D., of Emory University in Atlanta.

This is the first study to find a dose response when using enriched progenitor cells to repair damage following an MI severe enough to cause ventricular remodeling, he said at the American College of Cardiology meeting here…

via Medical News: ACC: Stem Cell Treatment May Help Repair MI Damage – in Meeting Coverage, ACC from MedPage Today.

News: UT receives Michael J. Fox award to develop Parkinson’s vaccine. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News – Biotechnology from Bench to Business

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on February 20, 2009 at 11:26 pm

Feb 17 2009, 12:12 PM EST

UT receives Michael J. Fox award to develop Parkinson’s vaccine

University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have received a $325,000 award from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to develop a vaccine for this progressive neurological disorder that affects about a million Americans.

via News: UT receives Michael J. Fox award to develop Parkinson’s vaccine. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News – Biotechnology from Bench to Business.

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