Posts Tagged ‘tissue’

Thomas Gray lived six days, but his life has lasting impact

In ALL ARTICLES, HOPE AND INSPIRATION on March 31, 2015 at 9:47 am

Thomas Gray lived six days, but his life has lasting impact

Sarah Gray reacts to research information about the donated retinas from her son, Thomas, who died at six days old in 2010. Callum, 5, Thomas´ identical twin brother, plays during the visit to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

Sarah Gray reacts to research information about the donated retinas from her son, Thomas, who died at six days old in 2010. Callum, 5, Thomas’ identical twin brother, plays during the visit to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. DAVID MAIALETTI / Staff Photographer
Sarah Gray reacts to research information about the donated retinas from her son, Thomas, who died at six days old in 2010. Callum, 5, Thomas´ identical twin brother, plays during the visit to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.
Gallery: Thomas Gray lived six days, but his life has lasting impact


When she found out early in her pregnancy that one of her identical twins would die at birth, Sarah Gray began a five-year journey that culminated last week in Philadelphia.

She had to carry the sick baby to term in order to protect his healthy twin. And she also looked into organ and tissue donation.

“Instead of thinking of our son as a victim,” she said, “I started thinking of him as a contributor to research, to science.”

On March 23, 2010, Thomas and Callum Gray were born at Fairfax Hospital in Virginia. Callum, perfect, was five pounds, 10 ounces. Thomas, four pounds, was born without part of his brain. His mother nursed him, diapered him, cradled him.

He died after six days – five years ago on Sunday. Within hours of Thomas’ death, his eyes and liver were recovered and sent – along with umbilical cord blood from him and his brother – to researchers.But that wasn’t the end of it for Sarah Gray.

She often wondered – what became of his eyes, his blood, his liver?

The Grays had received a thank-you letter from the Washington regional transplant organization, telling them their son’s corneas had been sent to the Schepens Eye Research Institute in Boston, and his liver and the cord blood to Duke University in North Carolina.

Two years later, on a business trip to Boston, Sarah Gray called the eye institute, which is affiliated with Harvard Medical School.

“I donated my son’s eyes to your lab,” she said on the phone. “Can I come by for a tour?”

The receptionist said she had never had such a request. “I’m not sure who to transfer you to,” she said, “but don’t hang up!”

The next day, Gray met James Zieske, the institute’s senior scientist, who told her “infant eyes are worth their weight in gold,” because, being so young, they have great regenerative properties. Thomas’ corneas were used in a study that could one day help cure corneal blindness.

Thirteen more studies had cited that study. Gray felt a new emotion: pride.

Before leaving, she bought a Harvard T-shirt for Callum, and decided she was going to go with the whole family to North Carolina, where Thomas’ liver and the cord blood had been sent.

Zieske also wrote her: “Your visit helped to remind me that all the eyes we receive are an incredibly generous gift from someone who loved and cared about the person who provided the eyes. I thank you for reminding me of this.”

A few months later in 2012, the Grays went to the Duke Center for Human Genetics in Durham, N.C., where even though the twins were identical, scientists found epigenetic differences in their cord blood, research that could one day help prevent Thomas’ fatal defect, anencephaly.

Sarah Gray bought Callum a Duke T-shirt.

The couple then drove down to the road to visit Cytonet, a biotech company that had used their baby’s liver in a trial to determine the best temperature to freeze liver tissue.

Already in the nonprofit public relations field, Sarah Gray became director of marketing for the American Association of Tissue Banks.

Her mantra has become donate, donate, donate, and not just for transplant, but also for research. Even if nobody asks you – doctors are often uncomfortable when a child is dying – bring it up yourself, she says.

At a conference last summer, by coincidence, Gray learned that the Old Dominion Eye Bank in North Chesterfield, Va., had shipped Thomas’ retinas to Philadelphia.

She couldn’t believe she’d never known this. She immediately wrote to the researcher at the University of Pennsylvania who used the donation in her efforts to cure retinoblastoma, the most common form of eye cancer in children.

Two days later, Gray got a reply from Arupa Ganguly, who runs the lab and is a genetics professor at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

“It is almost impossible to obtain normal retina from a child,” Ganguly wrote. “The sample from Thomas is extremely precious for us.”

Ganguly sent Callum a Penn T-shirt.

They arranged to meet last Monday.

First, Sarah, Ross, and Callum Gray went to the National Disease Research Interchange in Center City, which Sarah Gray calls “the Match.com of science.” The interchange connects hospitals that supply organs and tissue with researchers who request it.

“This seems to have brought you a lot of peace and joy,” Bill Leinweber, the interchange’s president and CEO, told Sarah. “You’ve been such a strong advocate for research and such an eloquent spokesperson for the value of research.”

After a visit there, the Gray family went to Penn to meet Ganguly and tour her lab.

Sarah Gray saw the marbled composition book in which the receipt of retinas was logged on March 30, 2010, the 360th specimen to be received. They became “RES 360,” short for Research 360.

“Is this the log book?” she asked. “Oh, my gosh.”

Gray ran her index finger over the cursive of Jennifer Yutz, the lab manager who recorded the entry.

“Ross, look at this! Med 360!”

Her husband took a look. Callum, then 4, hugged an inflatable Godzilla as tall as he is, a gift from Ganguly, bouncing it on the lab floor.

“Wow,” Sarah Gray continued. “Can I Xerox this?”

“We have a copy for you,” Ganguly said.

Penn also gave the Grays a copy of the Fed Ex packing slip confirming arrival, which Sarah Gray said she would “treasure like a war medal.”

Thomas’ retina tissue is so rare, so precious, Ganguly and her team are still saving some of it for future research. Ganguly’s staff led Sarah Gray into the hallway, where a refrigerator, innocuous and ordinary, stood across from student lockers. Yutz unlocked it.

Inside were hundreds of 1.5 milliliter tubes – smaller than cigarette filters.

Yutz pointed to two.

“There it is,” Yutz said.

“Oh my gosh!” Gray said. She couldn’t touch them. The tubes were frozen at minus-80 degrees centigrade (minus-112 Fahrenheit).

“It’s the RNA isolated from the retina tissue,” Yutz said.

Call it what you will, that was a piece of Thomas Gray, her son.

Ross Gray has long supported his wife’s journey.

“It helped her get over the loss,” he said. “It was part of the healing process, seeing that there’s still research going on five years after. His life was worthwhile. He’s brought a lot of good to the world.”

“The way I see it,” Sarah Gray said, “our son got into Harvard, Duke, and Penn. He has a job. He is relevant to the world. I only hope my life can be as relevant.”

Read more at http://www.philly.com/philly/health/20150329_Thomas_Gray_lived_six_days__but_his_life_has_lasting_impact.html#ASIBfjvkMHBMos7Y.99

microRNA – New Kid On The Block Has Journalistic Baggage

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on April 30, 2012 at 3:58 am

“Duke University researchers used molecules called microRNAs to convert scar tissue (called fibroblasts) into heart muscle cells in a living mouse”

That’s great! Unfortunately, the author of the article foolishly decided to pit “microRNA – The New Kid On The Block” against the decade long reigning champ, Adult Stem Cells…and he needs to get his story straight.


New Kids On The Block

From the start, the author presents almost no accurate information about adult stem cells, their decade of history, successes, studies, trials, patients treated, safety, efficacy and potency.  He is incredibly dated on the understanding of adult stem cells and straight up wrong/ignorant on many of his points.  His original 3 point comparison is to Embryonic stem cells, already shown to be far inferior to Adult Stem Cells in every way including their potency.  He then states Adult Stem Cells have: “…a limited capacity to form other types of cells” which is completely wrong. 

He then quotes the Duke University doctor, ‘The results of using these adult stem cells for tissue regeneration are “not as satisfying as one would like.” 

  • A. “not as satisfying as one would like.” is perhaps the most unscientific assessment I’ve ever heard 
  • B.  I’m surprised to hear this from the doctor as Duke University has had tremendous success utilizing stem cells in treating pediatric Cerebral Palsy/Ataxia 
  • C.  Would he be satisfied if there was a decade long history of cardiac tissue regeneration studies?  There is: https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/heart-disease-treatment/
  • D.  Would he be satisfied if you could grow an entire heart from scratch, from a patients’ own stem cells?  You can.


I suppose the author is not entirely to blame as the assertion within the peer reviewed article is completely erroneous as well: “this is the first report of direct cardiac reprogramming in vivo.”  Wrong!

I would further question whether microRNA cells are “smart” like adult stem cells are.  Gene therapy to turn heart muscle scar tissue into heart muscle is great but then you have a scar shaped piece of heart muscle.  Does it beat in perfect time with the rest of the heart muscle or is it asynchronous?  Can it grow an entirely new heart from scratch as adult stem cells can? (No, it can not)

An adult stem cell grows a cardiac cell from it’s proverbial birth and the cardiac cells conform from ‘birth’ and as they develop to the surrounding tissue and work in unison with the adjacent cells.  It would appear the microRNA transforms the scar tissue at a later stage of the cells growth.  This is then perhaps an “older cell” with it’s own inherent programming and limitations. Prone to it’s own agenda, these doppelganger heart cells may cause conflicts with the existing cells and the rest of the heart muscle.

Just changing scar to muscle is only a fraction of what stem cells can do.  “Smart” adult stem cells will build the cells needed, put them in the places they are needed, create valves where valves are needed, capillaries if those are needed, bring dead heart tissue back to life and then some will migrate down to the pancreas and heal that as well.

microRNA gene therapy may have a long future of success and I am sure there are some applications which they will be great.  To compare them to adult stem cells in the context of regenerative medicine as the author has done, especially without a proper understanding of the safety and efficacy record of adult stem cells, especially in the field of cardiac regenerative medicine which has a decade long history (the longest of all practical and clinical research), is like bringing a rubber knife to a gun fight.


Repairing the heart without using stem cells

By Alex Crees Published April 27, 2012 FoxNews.com

  • stem cell

When a person suffers a heart attack, scar tissue forms over the damaged areas of the heart, reducing the organ’s function.  However, in a recent study, scientists successfully turned this scar tissue into working heart muscle without the use of stem cells.

Duke University researchers used molecules called microRNAs to convert scar tissue (called fibroblasts) into heart muscle cells in a living mouse, improving the heart’s ability to pump blood.

According to the scientists, this process is much simpler than stem cell transplants and has none of the ethical concerns, making it a potential turning point in the science of tissue regeneration.

“Right now, there’s no good evidence stem cells can do the job,” senior author Dr. Victor Dzau, a James B. Duke professor of medicine and chancellor of health affairs at Duke University, told FoxNews.com.

Scientists believe embryonic stem cells are the best to use for tissue regeneration because they are pluripotent—meaning they can become any type of cell in the body.  However, Dzau said there have not been enough experiments done to prove how functional the stem cells are in regenerating tissues and whether or not they may form deadly tumors.

Additionally, there are ethical concerns about using cells derived from a human embryo, he said.

Meanwhile, adult stem cells avoid the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells but have a limited capacity to form other types of cells.  The results of using these adult stem cells for tissue regeneration are “not as satisfying as one would like,” Dzau said.

Rather than stem cells, the new method developed by Dzau’s team uses microRNA molecules—which typically control gene activity—and delivers them into the scar tissue that develops after a heart attack.  The microRNAs are able to reprogram, or trick, the scar tissue into becoming heart muscle again instead.

Testing is still in its early stages, but so far, the method appears to be relatively easy, and the data looks very promising, according to the researchers.

“It’s a much simplified, feasible way of causing regeneration; very easy to use as therapy,” Dzau said.  “With stem cells, you have to take them from the embryo or tissue in the body, grow them in culture, and re-inject them—and then there can be technical and biological problems.

“With microRNA, after a heart attack you can simply convert some of the fibroblasts and tell them to become the right cell type and regenerate,” he said.

The method also has the potential to treat stroke, spinal cord injuries, chronic conditions such as heart disease—and even the normal damage that can come with aging.  It can feasibly be used for any type of organ in the body, though the process of converting the cells may be different for each organ.

“Right now, our work is proof of concept,” Dzau said, adding that the method must still be tested in then larger animals, and if successful there, it can move onto human clinical trials.  “But one could think about all these things of possibilities.  Could you use it to treat the disease of aging and losing brain cells?  Can you convert other cells in the brain to working brain cells?

“It’s a significant finding because it changes the way we think about regenerating tissues,” Dzau said.  “It breaks open a whole new area.”

The study was funded in part by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and published Thursday in the journal Circulation Research.


In BEST OF THE BEST on October 4, 2011 at 5:37 pm
NEW TREATMENT OPTIONS! NEW TREATMENT PRICES!The Doctor with perhaps the most experience in the world with Stem Cell Treatments for HEART DISEASE (and many others) is now taking on patients! He also has extensive experience with the following:

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Your treatment fee has been negotiated down to around $25,000 (the specific cost may vary depending on your specific requirements but it will not exceed $26,000). This is a ~$10,000 reduction on standard treatment costs and I hope this helps to move stem cell treatments out of your dreams and into your reality!

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Contact me immediately and I will assist you in scheduling your appointment and getting more information on your specific condition and treatments. Email me at dsgrano@gmail.com

Banks of off-the-shelf body parts could be created for transplants: researchers – Telegraph

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on July 15, 2010 at 10:04 am

Banks of off-the-shelf body parts could be created for transplants: researchers

Off-the-shelf body parts could soon be available for surgeons to use to repair injuries or patch-up worn out organs, researchers claim.

By Rebecca Smith, Medical Editor

Published: 7:50AM BST 14 Jul 2010

Photo: ALAMY

Scientists are perfecting ways of creating bare ‘scaffold’ building blocks of body parts which can then be used as a frame for a patient’s own cells to grow around.

The technique involves taking a piece of dead donor or animal body part and removing all the soft tissue so just the bare structure is left. Stem cells from the patient can then be placed on the frame and will regrow into a new body part for them.

The technique has already been successful in creating a new section of windpipe for patients who have suffered injury or disease and it is hoped it can be used for a wider set of organs.

Experts said the scaffold for the most commonly used parts could be created in advance and stored ready for use when needed.

Prof John Fisher from The University of Leeds spoke at a stem cell conference of the potential to create banks of scaffolds of all kinds of body tissue so surgeons can then finish them off with a covering of tissue grown from the patient before they are implanted.

He told the UK National Stem Cell Network Annual Science Meeting in Nottingham of work he and his colleague Prof Eileen Ingham have been working on to create the scaffolds from dead donors or animals.

So far, patches to cover a hole or weakening in a blood vessel, knee cartilage and tendons have been created.

The advantage of the method is that the patient will not reject the transplanted tissue as foreign because the scaffold is stripped of all material that can trigger rejection and the soft tissue is grown from their own stem cells.

It means patients can avoid powerful immunosurpressant drugs which shorten life expectancy and can increase the risk of cancer.

Scaffolds derived from human donor tissue are being developed by the NHS Blood & Transplant Tissue Services, while scaffolds developed from animal tissues are being developed and commercialised by Tissue Regenix Group PLC.

Prof Fisher said: “If you take a natural tissue and strip off all of the donor’s cells you’re left with a biological scaffold made mostly of a protein called collagen, which is compatible with the patient receiving the scaffold.

“That scaffold is good from an engineering perspective because it’s strong, flexible and retains the properties of the natural tissue. It also has the appropriate shape and size, and from a biological perspective is good because a patient’s cells can bind to it and repopulate it easily.”

The transplants are also expected to last longer than those in use currently because the technique overcomes the problem of rejection.

Prof Fisher said chemically treated and strengthened prosthetic heart valves from pigs, for example, have been in used in human transplants for more than a decade, but the chemical process which stops them from being rejected by the patient’s immune system also leaves them lifeless so they degrade over time and need to be replaced.

He added:”These new biological scaffolds will provide off-the-shelf tissues for surgeons for repairing blood vessels after surgery for blocked arteries, for repairing knee cartilage after sporting injuries and cartilage tears, for repairing torn ligaments or tendons and for heart valve repair or replacement.”

Other more complex structures like a voicebox could be replaced in the same way but the demand for such specialist transplants is more limited and so it is unlikely bio-tech companies would make scaffolds for these in advance and store them.

via Banks of off-the-shelf body parts could be created for transplants: researchers – Telegraph.

Isolation and expansion of functionally-competent cardiac progenitor cells directly from heart biopsies. – Johns Hopkins University (JHU) – Collexis Research Profiling 3.6

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on June 22, 2010 at 6:51 pm



Scientific Abstract of Clinical Trial below…

– – – – – – –

Isolation and expansion of functionally-competent cardiac progenitor cells directly from heart biopsies.

Davis Darryl R; Kizana Eddy; Terrovitis John; Barth Andreas S; Zhang Yiqiang; Smith Rachel Ruckdeschel; Miake Junichiro; Marbán Eduardo (Profiled Author: Marban, Eduardo)

Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA – Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2010;49(2):312-21.


The adult heart contains reservoirs of progenitor cells that express embryonic and stem cell-related antigens. While these antigenically-purified cells are promising candidates for autologous cell therapy, clinical application is hampered by their limited abundance and tedious isolation methods. Methods that involve an intermediate cardiosphere-forming step have proven successful and are being tested clinically, but it is unclear whether the cardiosphere step is necessary.

Accordingly, we investigated the molecular profile and functional benefit of cells that spontaneously emigrate from cardiac tissue in primary culture. Adult Wistar-Kyoto rat hearts were minced, digested and cultured as separate anatomical regions. Loosely-adherent cells that surround the plated tissue were harvested weekly for a total of five harvests. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that a small proportion of the direct outgrowth from cardiac samples originates from myocardial cells.

This outgrowth contains sub-populations of cells expressing embryonic (SSEA-1) and stem cell-related antigens (c-Kit, abcg2) that varied with time in culture but not with the cardiac chamber of origin. This direct outgrowth, and its expanded progeny, underwent marked in vitro angiogenic/cardiogenic differentiation and cytokine secretion (IGF-1, VGEF).

In vivo effects included long-term functional benefits as gauged by MRI following cell injection in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Outgrowth cells afforded equivalent functional benefits to cardiosphere-derived cells, which require more processing steps to manufacture. These results provide the basis for a simplified and efficient process to generate autologous cardiac progenitor cells (and mesenchymal supporting cells) to augment clinically-relevant approaches for myocardial repair.

via Isolation and expansion of functionally-competent cardiac progenitor cells directly from heart biopsies. – Johns Hopkins University (JHU) – Collexis Research Profiling 3.6.

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on May 24, 2010 at 7:37 pm

I met with Dr. Mao last summer and I found his presentation fascinating and informative.  Imagine taking stem cells from your own body and regrowing your won teeth. No dentures, crowns, implants, foreign materials, etc. etc.  Imagine; tooth regeneration from your own body, for your own body.  -dg

Monday, May 24, 2010

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

A technique pioneered in the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory of Dr. Jeremy Mao, the Edward V. Zegarelli Professor of Dental Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, can orchestrate stem cells to migrate to a 3-D scaffold infused with growth factor, holding the translational potential to yield an anatomically correct tooth in as soon as nine weeks once implanted.
People who have lost some or all of their adult teeth typically look to dentures, or, more recently, dental implants to improve a toothless appearance that can have a host of unsettling psycho-social ramifications. Despite being the preferred (but generally painful and potentially protracted) treatment for missing teeth nowadays, dental implants can fail and are unable to “remodel” with surrounding jaw bone that undergoes necessary changes throughout a person’s life.
An animal-model study has shown that by homing stem cells to a scaffold made of natural materials and integrated in surrounding tissue, there is no need to use harvested stem cell lines, or create an environment outside of the body (e.g., a Petri dish) where the tooth is grown and then implanted once it has matured. The tooth instead can be grown “orthotopically,” or in the socket where the tooth will integrate with surrounding tissue in ways that are impossible with hard metals or other materials.
Human molar scaffolding from the lab of Dr. Jeremy Mao
Human Molar Scaffold
“These findings represent the first report of regeneration of anatomically shaped tooth-like structures in vivo, and by cell homing without cell delivery,” Dr. Mao and his colleagues say in the paper. “The potency of cell homing is substantiated not only by cell recruitment into scaffold microchannels, but also by the regeneration of periodontal ligaments and newly formed alveolar bone.”
This study is published in the most recent Journal of Dental Research, the top-rated, peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry, the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease.
Dental implants usually consist of a cone-shaped titanium screw with a roughened or smooth surface and are placed in the jaw bone. While implant surgery may be performed as an outpatient procedure, healing times vary widely and successful implantation is a result of multiple visits to different clinicians, including general dentists, oral surgeons, prosthodontists and periodontists. Implant patients must allow two to six months for healing and if the implant is installed too soon, it is possible that the implant may fail. The subsequent time to heal, graft and eventually put into place a new implant may take up to 18 months.
The work of Dr. Mao and his laboratory, however, holds manifold promise: a more natural process, faster recovery times and a harnessing of the body’s own potential to re-grow tissue that will not give out and could ultimately last the patient’s lifetime.
“A key consideration in tooth regeneration is finding a cost-effective approach that can translate into therapies for patients who cannot afford or who aren’t good candidates for dental implants,” Dr. Mao says. “Cell-homing-based tooth regeneration may provide a tangible pathway toward clinical translation.”

Dr. Ira B. Lamster, dean of the College of Dental Medicine, stated: “This research provides an example of what is achievable when today’s biology is applied to common clinical problems. Dr. Mao’s research is a look into the future of dental medicine.”

via Nano Patents and Innovations: Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration.


In ALL ARTICLES on October 5, 2009 at 2:02 pm

breast reconstruction

Cytori Therapeutics, Tissue Genesis, Thermogenesis, Stem Cell Therapies, Branding, And Joining Forces

Stem cell therapy is quietly entering areas where it provides improved or alternative therapeutic results. Cytori is showing continually improved study and anecdotal results in breast reconstruction with adipose stem cells, a result which implicitly includes the creation of new blood vessels. If positive results continue, breast reconstruction is going to be an excellent market for Cytori, one already generating the lion’s share of its current revenues, and one in which it is clearly establishing a leadership position.

via Stem Cell Research: Cytori Therapeutics, Tissue Genesis, Thermogenesis, Stem Cell Therapies, Branding, And Joining Forces.


In ALL ARTICLES on August 23, 2009 at 12:15 pm
Scientists Move Closer to Repairing Damaged Hearts Using Patient’s Own Body

August 22, 2009

A major study by Baxter Inc has shown promising results in the effort to repair damaged hearts using stem cells from the patient’s own body. The stem cells are harvested and injected into the heart muscle where they are able to grew blood vessels and develop into new heart tissue.

So far, the treatment has shown no side effects. However the process of injecting the stems cells into the heart requires open heart surgery, which has a 1% chance of perforating the heart. Researchers are looking into other ways of delivering stems cells to the heart by injecting them into other muscles or through an IV into a vein…

via http://www.citizensreport.org/2009/08/22/scientists-move-closer-to-repairing-damaged-hearts-using-patient%E2%80%99s-own-body/

Isn’t there a law against this kind of misguided information? They are sighting “promising results?” “Requires open heart surgery?” “Looking into IV implantation?” 


Type keyword “Doris Taylor” or “Congestive heart failure” or “James Eilert” into the search bar on my blog and you will find many, many articles on the history of adult stem cell treatment of heart disease.  A long history of proven treatments, since 2004, using multiple methods of implantation including direct injection and IV implantation and catheterization through the femoral artery.  NO OPEN HEART SURGERY REQUIRED! 

C’mon guys. Wake up and see what has been happening around the world for half a decade.  Stop distributing false or misleading information.  The ptients deserve to hear the truth.  Not a little bit of the truth, not a slanted version of the truth, not a rewritten version of the truth…the whole truth.

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