DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘Tissue engineering’

CHILD RECEIVES NEW STEM CELL TRACHEA

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 30, 2013 at 2:44 pm
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Two years ago, 11 year old Ciaran Finn-Lynch, became the world’s first child to receive new trachea.  Scientists/doctors used the child’s own stem cells to rebuild the airway in his body.  This is the really cool stuff because the public can wrap their heads around it and see a trachea in a dish, a nose growing on an arm, etc.  The next step in evolution of the public consciousness is to get them to understand…we can regrow and heal the organs which are already present in their own bodies, already damaged and in need of fixing…with stem cells from their own body.  I think this will be difficult as the home owner with the means will almost always go to the outside plumber or the super store and get a new piece of equipment to replace the old rather than pick up a wrench and fix what they have already.  Another byproduct of the disposable society we live in.  Homes, cars, washing machines and now organs are believed to have a limited life span.  When it breaks, just buy a new one.  – DG

Here’s the article from ScienceDaily:

Surgeons Transplant New Trachea Into Child Using His Own Stem Cells to Rebuild Airway

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100325114400.htm

Which was written based on materials from the University College of London release (what, you thought this was in the US?):

UCL surgeons perform revolutionary transplant operation

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/1003/10031903

trachea

Here’s the 2 year follow-up:

Stem-cell-based, tissue engineered tracheal replacement in a child: a 2-year follow-up study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841419

And the human interest story coverage of the same:

Stunning Recovery for First Child to Get Stem Cell Trachea

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/stunning-recovery-child-stem-cell-trachea/story?id=16858771

HUMAN NOSE GROWN THROUGH STEM CELLS ON PATIENTS ARM

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 27, 2013 at 9:00 am

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Havana (PL). – A British businessman suffering from a cancer that cost him his nose expects to recover the affected organ by a novel technique of reconstruction from its own tissue.  The procedure is being developed by researchers from the University College London (UCL), and it is about making the nasal appendage grow into the patient’s arm in order to transplant it later to the face, hoping also this part can recover the sense of smell.

According to experts, the new nose began to form in a biodegradable mold -based on the original one- with a synthetic material where millions of stem cells were injected.  At the same time they worked the skin of one of the arms, which was extended gradually with a small inflated ball housed beneath the surface. Two months later the ball was replaced by the nose in training, where the appendix is now acquiring networks of nerves and small blood vessels, as well as a skin cover.

After three months, the nose will be grafted into the man’s face, in an operation so precise that it should leave no scars. Whereas his arm will return to normal, said the attending physician team.  Scientists are convinced of the success of the procedure, and they explained that the nasal structure will be even slightly curved to the left, very similar to that lost as a result of their illness.

Some time ago a team of Spanish surgeons rebuilt the face of two children who suffered a serious facial hemiatrophy with adult stem cells extracted from adipose tissue of patients.  This technique, which not only generates volume but also regenerates tissues, is about practicing millimeter punctures in the children abdomen, in order to suck, through liposuction cannulas, the fat that is deposited there.  The material is processed in an aseptic manner, and from the fat are extracted the purest stomach stem cells with the higher regenerative properties, which are mixed with the fatty tissue for immediate re implantation into the patient, in an operation not very complex, they said.

The benefits of this therapy can be transferred to any other soft tissue atrophy, and the results are evident in a few months, because stem cells are regenerated and optimize the quality of the implant after a while, they said.

In fact, a similar technique for breast reconstruction and for improving cardiac function in myocardial infarction has been used.  Besides it has been successful in repairing tissues such as the trachea, esophagus and skeletal muscle in animal and human models, while advancing in the regeneration of organs such as liver, heart and lungs.

CELL THERAPY AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE

Throughout life, cells forming tissues wear out and are degenerated. Advances in medicine based on replacement techniques of damaged tissue have been a revolution not without problems, including the limitation on the number of donor organs, and immunological complications (graft rejection), partly resolved with medication.  It is known that tissue forming part of the body have naturally the intrinsic capacity to self-renew, a process which occurs thanks to the remaining cells with capacity of differentiation.  This has opened a new era in the so-called regenerative medicine using stem cells, which is nothing but exploiting the natural mechanisms of cell renewal to repair damaged tissues, a new concept that opens possible therapeutic paths for certain diseases considered incurable at present.

The old dream of scientists to create organs on demand seems, judging by the progress made, ever closer.

* Journalist of the Science and Technology Editorial Department of Prensa Latina News Agency.

ADULT STEM CELLS USED TO SUCCESSFULLY REBUILD A HUMAN TRACHEA

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 20, 2013 at 9:03 am

trachea

Tissue-Engineered Trachea Transplant Is Adult Stem Cell Breakthrough

The first tissue-engineered trachea (windpipe), utilizing the patient’s own stem cells, has been successfully transplanted into a young woman with a failing airway. The bio-engineered trachea immediately provided the patient with a normally functioning airway, thereby saving her life.  These remarkable results provide crucial new evidence that adult stem cells, combined with biologically compatible materials, can offer genuine solutions to other serious illnesses.  In particular, the successful outcome shows it is possible to produce a tissue-engineered airway with mechanical properties that permit normal breathing and which is free from the risks of rejection seen with conventional transplanted organs. The patient has not developed antibodies to her graft, despite not taking any immunosuppressive drugs. Lung function tests performed two months after the operation were all at the better end of the normal range for a young woman.

The loss of a normal airway is devastating, but previous attempts to replace large airways have met serious problems. The 30-year-old mother of two, suffering from collapsed airways following a severe case of TB, was hospitalized in March 2008 with acute shortness of breath rendering her unable to carry out simple domestic duties or care for her children. The only conventional option remaining was a major operation to remove her left lung which carries a risk of complications and a high mortality rate.  Based on successful laboratory work previously performed by the team, and given the urgency of the situation, it was proposed that the lower trachea and the tube to the patient’s left lung (bronchus) should be replaced with a bio-engineered airway based on the scaffold of a human trachea.

A seven-centimeter tracheal segment was donated by a 51-year-old transplant donor who had who had died of cerebral hemorrhage. Spain has a policy of assumed consent for organ donation. Using a new technique developed in Padua University, the trachea was decellularised over a six-week period so that no donor cells remained.  Stem cells were obtained from the recipient’s own bone marrow, grown into a large population in Professor Martin Birchall’s lab at the University of Bristol, and matured into cartilage cells (chondrocytes) using an adapted method originally devised for treating osteoarthritis

The donor trachea was then seeded with chondrocytes on the outside, using a novel bio-reactor which incubates cells, allowing them to migrate into the tissue under conditions ideal for each individual cell type. In order to replicate the lining of the trachea, epithelial cells were seeded onto the inside of the trachea using the same bio-reactor.  Four days after seeding, the graft was used to replace the patient’s left main bronchus. The operation was performed in June 2008 at the Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, by Professor Paolo Macchiarini of the University of Barcelona.

Professor Macchiarini, lead author on the paper, said: “We are terribly excited by these results. Just four days after transplantation the graft was almost indistinguishable from adjacent normal bronchi. After one month, a biopsy elicited local bleeding, indicating that the blood vessels had already grown back successfully”.

Martin Birchall, Professor of Surgery at the University of Bristol, added: “Surgeons can now start to see and understand the very real potential for adult stem cells and tissue engineering to radically improve their ability to treat patients with serious diseases. We believe this success has proved that we are on the verge of a new age in surgical care”.

Anthony Hollander, Professor of Rheumatology and Tissue Engineering at the University of Bristol, concurred: “This successful treatment manifestly demonstrates the potential of adult stem cells to save lives”.

The patient, Claudia Castillo, a young woman from Colombia but now living in Spain, had no complications from the operation and was discharged from hospital on the tenth post-operative day. She has remained well since and has a normal quality of life. She is able to care for her children, walk up two flights of stairs and occasionally go out dancing in the evenings.

http://www.science20.com

FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, ADIPOSE (FAT) STEM CELLS ARE BEST

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 26, 2013 at 10:41 am

david

50% MORE REGENERATIVE STEM CELLS IN FAT THAN IN CORD BLOOD: 

“Adult stem cells are derived from blood, umbilical cords, bone marrow, placenta, fat tissue, muscle, nasal neurological, breast milk, menstruation, dental pulp, lungs, eyes, pancreas and many more locations. While some are better than others for regenerative treatment, it has long been believed that those cells derived from reproductive associated organs are some of the most powerful.  This study shows that umbilical cord derived stem cells are not as great as once believed.”

In fact, compared to the 100% of mesenchymal stem cells found in cells derived from adipose (fat), only 67% of cord blood stem cells are mesenchymal and lend themselves toward regenerative treatments.*  While bone marrow derived stem cells also have 100% mesenchymal cells, they have reduced proliferation and have a history of causing malignant cells – ‘In addition, Izadpanah et al.** demonstrated that long-term cultivation of MSC beyond passage 20 may result in their transformation to malignant cells.”***


For regenerative medicine, nothing beats adipose derived stem cells. -dg

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Only A Specific Group Of Cord Blood Stem Cells Found To Be Efficient For Use In Regenerative Medicine

Scientists at the University of Granada and Alcala de Henares University have found that not all isolated stem cells are equally valid in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In a paper recently published in the prestigious journal Tissue Engineering the researchers report that, contrary to what was thought, only a specific group of cord blood stem cells (CB-SC) maintained in culture are useful for therapeutic purposes.

At present, CB-SCs are key to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. From all types of CB-SC those called “Wharton’s jelly stem cells (HWJSC)” are stirring up the interest of specialists in regenerative medicine, due to their accessibility and great ability to develop into several types of tissue and modulate immune responses.

Through a combination of microscopy and microanalysis essays, and the study of the genes involved in cell viability, the researchers discovered that only a specific group of cord blood stem cells (CB-SC) maintained in culture is useful for therapeutic purposes

The Most Suitable Cells

The relevance of this paper, which was the cover article in the journal Tissue Engineering, lies in the possibility to select the most suitable HWJSC for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. According to these researchers, the different studies with HWJSC have obtained contradictory results because researchers failed to previously select the most suitable cell group.

The results of this study also open the possibility to select stem cell subgroups from different tissues, in order to improve the therapeutical efficacy of different regenerative medicine protocols.

This research study was conducted by the Tissue Engineering research group at the University of Granada Histology Department coordinated by professor Antonio Campos Muñoz, who recently created artificial skin and a cornea by using stem cells and new biomaterials developed in Granada.

The research group is also composed of professors Alaminos Mingorance and Ingrid Garzón. Professor Garzon was awarded a prize at the World Congress on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine held in Seul for a preliminary study on the same issue.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/254790.php

* , *** Stem Cells. 2006 May;24(5):1294-301. Epub 2006 Jan 12.

** – Izadpanah R, Kaushal D, Kriedt C, Tsien F, Patel B, Dufour J, Bunnell BA. Long-term in vitro expansion alters the biology of adult mesenchymal stem cells. Cancer Res.                                                           2008;68:4229–4238.

REJUVENATION OF ADULT STEM CELLS, ‘FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH’ TECHNIQUE

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on December 1, 2012 at 9:15 am

 

Fountain of Youth

A new technique derived from transforming aged stem cells into cells that function like young stem cells, is one of the many new discoveries that has the potential to eliminate the threat of rejection within the host patient.     “We can create much better tissues which can then be used to repair defects such as aneurysms, as well as repairing damage caused by heart attacks.”  This new technique has the potential to use donated patient’s cells, no matter how old, for repairing cardiac tissue, with the benefit of non-rejection.

-DG

Stem cell therapies involving donated bone marrow stem cells run the risk of patient rejection in a portion of the population, argues Milica Radisic, Canada Research Chair in Functional Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University of Toronto.

One method of avoiding the risk of rejection has been to use cells derived from a patient’s own body. But until now, clinical trials of this kind of therapy using elderly patients’ own cells have not been a viable option, since aged cells tend not to function as well as cells from young patients.

“If you want to treat these people with their own cells, how do you do this?”

It’s a problem that Radisic and her co-researcher, Dr. Ren-Ke Li, think they might have an answer for: by creating the conditions for a ‘fountain of youth’ reaction within a tissue culture.  Li holds the Canada Research Chair in Cardiac Regeneration and is a Professor in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, cross-appointed to IBBME. He is also a Senior Scientist at the Toronto General Research Institute.

Radisic and Li first create a “micro-environment” that allows heart tissue to grow, with stem cells donated from elderly patients at the Toronto General Hospital.  The cell cultures are then infused with a combination of growth factors — common factors that cause blood vessel growth and cell proliferation — positioned in such a way within the porous scaffolding that the cells are able to be stimulated by these factors.

Dr. Li and his team then tracked the molecular changes in the tissue patch cells. “We saw certain aging factors turned off,” states Li, citing the levels of two molecules in particular, p16 and RGN, which effectively turned back the clock in the cells, returning them to robust and healthy states.  “It’s very exciting research,” says Radisic, who was named one of the top innovators under 35 by MIT in 2008 and winner of the 2012 Young Engineers Canada award.

Li and Radisic hope to continue their goal to create the most effective environment in which cells from older patients can be given new life. “We can create much better tissues which can then be used to repair defects such as aneurysms,” Li says, as well as repairing damage caused by heart attacks.

The study was recently released in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, the top journal in the field of cardiovascular medicine.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121127191254.htm

 

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