DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘stem cell’

RESURRECTING THE DEAD WITH STEM CELLS

In ALL ARTICLES, BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS, Doctors Practicing Excellence, HOPE AND INSPIRATION, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 6, 2017 at 2:08 pm

Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death. It is also called rebirth or transmigration, and is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence.”
reincarnation-symbol-25893_960_720
“In Greek mythology, a phoenix is a long-lived bird that is cyclically regenerated or reborn. Associated with the Sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor.”
phoenix_rising_by_something44
“The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead. It is the central tenet of Christian theology and part of the Nicene Creed: “On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures”.
christ-rresurrection

“Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.”Frankenstein's_monster_(Boris_Karloff).jpg

Humanity has always been fascinated by resurrection – bringing the dead back to life.  The references are plentiful and many will cry out that science should not mess with the great barrier of death for it is absolute and divine and we should not mess with nature.  But, are life and death truly black and white?

Perhaps not.  The “Lazarus syndrome, also known as autoresuscitation after failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is the spontaneous return of circulation after failed attempts at resuscitation. Its occurrence has been noted in medical literature at least 38 times since 1982.”

Are there shades of gray between the absolute states of life and death?
Miracle Max: It just so happens that your friend here is only MOSTLY dead. There’s a big difference between mostly dead and all dead. Mostly dead is slightly alive. With all dead, well, with all dead there’s usually only one thing you can do.
Inigo Montoya: What’s that?
Miracle Max: Go through his clothes and look for loose change.
billy-crystal
Perhaps Benjamin Franklin was only half right: “…in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes

Death, it seems is not as final as we once thought.  But, can it be done?  Scientists have been given the green light to try:
“By implanting stem cells in the patient’s brain…they hope to reboot the brain and jump-start neural activity. The result could be people coming back to life.”

On a serious note 

The above pics and quips aside…
this work is monumental and can have huge ramifications to the treatments of chronic and terminal disease, brain disorders and more.  Many people would like to classify AGING as a disease which we need to study, treat and conquer and scientists around the world are making great strides in their efforts.  Maybe one day soon we will also classify DEATH as a disease which we need to study, treat and conquer.  Let’s keep an open mind and support the discovery of new methods for treating disease. 

Article

Advertisements

IS CORD BLOOD STORAGE A SCAM?

In BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS, HEALTH AND WELLNESS, PHARMA AND DRUGS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 2, 2017 at 11:53 am
Someone wrote:
“I tried to find out how to get this [reversing MS with stem cells] done and all the companies I called require you to pay $15,000 for stem cells they already have and go to Mexico for the procedure. I wanted to use the baby’s cord tissue stem cells”
delayed_cord_clamping_calmness_3_hours_old
IS CORD BLOOD STORAGE A SCAM?
It’s not a scam. Here’s the deal…
Cord blood is not the only game in town. You also have 80 some odd stem cell derivation sources in your OWN body…
So, odds are one of them WILL work if something goes a bit wrong down the line…
And to the most jaded, cord blood stem cell storage IS a timing marketing coup, hitting parents for stem cell storage to insure their new baby’s health when they are most vulnerable emotionally…
Then again, cord blood stem cells (all stem cells associated with reproduction) ARE very powerful with no known rejection issues…
And, there are also, of course, SOME few conditions that damage your own stem cells or production which might make the use of your existing cells non-indicated, requiring use of stored cord blood cells…
And often, older children didn’t have the opportunity to store cells and these COULD be potentially used for them…
So. Is cord blood storage a grand slam home run of guaranteed use and value? No, it is a hedging of your bets, cellular-level insurance policy against when things go terribly wrong and…that’s why most people do it.
 
PRICE: $15,000 is a fairly common cost as these are “one off” procedures to assist in recovery from the disease, not a bottle of pills to (maybe) mitigate symptoms. Monthly costs of some drugs are $12k, factor in loss of income, loss of quality of life, etc it all adds up to $15k as a significant bargain over yealry costs of $60k, $80k and more.  Btw, here’s some other procedure costs – the average cost of gastric bypass surgery is $23,000…he average cost of heart bypass surgery is $70-200,000 and on.  And yes, stem cell procedures have a long history of safety and efficacy and should be covered by insurance.  Write your congressman and vote your medical needs.
 
STEM CELL SOURCE: They wanted to use “stem cells they already have”:
Nobody I know will use cells, basically a tiny handful of unrecognizable goo, taken from someone else, stored by someone else, shipped by someone else to treat someone else. It’s a recipe for disaster and too much can go wrong with accidents, bacteria, reduced bioavailability, etc. Their ONLY using the stem cells they have doesn’t scam you…it PROTECTS you.
 
LOCATION: “and go to Mexico for the procedure”:
Blame American Medical System resistance to stem cells for the past 15 years, followed by a focus on cyst and tumor causing embryonic stem cells, followed by political and pharma and money and so on. The world has been recovering many chronic and terminal diseases since 2000 which are still incurable in the US because our medical system has been ostensibly blind to the benefits of stem cells for over a decade.

ULTRASOUND GOES INSIDE LIVE CELLS

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on February 17, 2017 at 9:06 am

Researchers at The University of Nottingham have developed a break-through technique that uses sound rather than light to see inside live cells…like ultrasound on the body, ultrasound in the cells causes no damage and requires no toxic chemicals to work. Because of this we can see inside cells that one day might be put back into the body, for instance as stem-cell transplants

fat-cells1

Researchers at The University of Nottingham have developed a break-through technique that uses sound rather than light to see inside live cells, with potential application in stem-cell transplants and cancer diagnosis.

The new nanoscale ultrasound technique uses shorter-than-optical wavelengths of sound and could even rival the optical super-resolution techniques which won the 2014 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

This new kind of sub-optical phonon (sound) imaging provides invaluable information about the structure, mechanical properties and behaviour of individual living cells at a scale not achieved before.

Researchers from the Optics and Photonics group in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, are behind the discovery, which is published in the paper ‘High resolution 3D imaging of living cells with sub-optical wavelength phonons’ in the journal, Scientific Reports.

“People are most familiar with ultrasound as a way of looking inside the body — in the simplest terms we’ve engineered it to the point where it can look inside an individual cell. Nottingham is currently the only place in the world with this capability,” said Professor Matt Clark, who contributed to the study.

In conventional optical microscopy, which uses light (photons), the size of the smallest object you can see (or the resolution) is limited by the wavelength.

For biological specimens, the wavelength cannot go smaller than that of blue light because the energy carried on photons of light in the ultraviolet (and shorter wavelengths) is so high it can destroy the bonds that hold biological molecules together damaging the cells.

Optical super-resolution imaging also has distinct limitations in biological studies. This is because the fluorescent dyes it uses are often toxic and it requires huge amounts of light and time to observe and reconstruct an image which is damaging to cells.

Unlike light, sound does not have a high-energy payload. This has enabled the Nottingham researchers to use smaller wavelengths and see smaller things and get to higher resolutions without damaging the cell biology.

“A great thing is that, like ultrasound on the body, ultrasound in the cells causes no damage and requires no toxic chemicals to work. Because of this we can see inside cells that one day might be put back into the body, for instance as stem-cell transplants,” adds Professor Clark.

###

More information is available from Professor Matt Clark in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham on +44 (0)115 951 5536, matt.clark@nottingham.ac.uk; or Emma Lowry, Media Relations Manager, on +44 (0)115 846 7156, emma.lowry@nottingham.ac.uk

Our academics can now be interviewed for broadcast via our Media Hub, which offers a Globelynx fixed camera and ISDN line facilities at University Park campus. For further information please contact a member of the Communications team on +44 (0)115 951 5798, email mediahub@nottingham.ac.uk or see the Globelynx website for how to register for this service.

About The University of Nottingham: The University of Nottingham has 43,000 students and is ‘the nearest Britain has to a truly global university, with a “distinct” approach to internationalisation, which rests on those full-scale campuses in China and Malaysia, as well as a large presence in its home city.’ (Times Good University Guide 2016). It is also one of the most popular universities in the UK among graduate employers and winner of both ‘University of the Year for Graduate Employment’, according to the 2017 The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide and ‘Outstanding Support for Early Career Researchers’ at the Times Higher Education Awards 2015. It is ranked in the world’s top 75 by the QS World University Rankings 2015/16. More than 97 per cent of research at The University of Nottingham is recognised internationally and it is 8th in the UK by research power according to the Research Excellence Framework 2014. It has been voted the world’s greenest campus for four years running, according to Greenmetrics Ranking of World Universities.

LONG TERM REMISSION OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH STEM CELLS

In Daily Dose of Stem Cells, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on February 16, 2017 at 12:36 pm

While high-dose immunosuppressive therapy is not without complications, we must remember that research is rarely linear and every step closer is a step closer – we learn a bit more and refine the process with each step as our understanding of all of the elements which make up our health, recover and illness are slowly puzzled together like a patch-work quilt…

ms-recovery

Stem cell transplants may induce long-term remission of multiple sclerosis

Encouraging results help set stage for larger studies.

New clinical trial results provide evidence that high-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by transplantation of a person’s own blood-forming stem cells can induce sustained remission of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system.

Five years after receiving the treatment, called high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (HDIT/HCT), 69 percent of trial participants had survived without experiencing progression of disability, relapse of MS symptoms or new brain lesions. Notably, participants did not take any MS medications after receiving HDIT/HCT. Other studies have indicated that currently available MS drugs have lower success rates.

The trial, called HALT-MS, was sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and conducted by the NIAID-funded Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). The researchers published three-year results from the study in December 2014, and the final five-year results appear online Feb. 1 in Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Related:

12/12/2013 – Dr Oz and Dr Tisch discuss MS and stem cells http://www.doctoroz.com/episode/meredith-vieiras-family-health-battle?

CAN STEM CELLS CURE DOWN SYNDROME?

In HEALTH AND WELLNESS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on February 3, 2017 at 5:00 pm

There’s a lot going on in this article.  14 patients with Down Syndrome were treated with stem cells.  Down Syndrome is a common chromosomal disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (HSA21q). I’m not going to introduce a critical analysis of this.  This article does that with great skepticism.  Let’s take a different tact.  Let’s approach this with the idea that it could happen but we don’t yet know how.  How about I raise some questions of my own with the intention to not tear down but rather to perhaps, inspire someone else to discover a new path to some answers.  Let’s throw away conventional thought and limitations and try to grasp a kernel of truth from a bag of confusion.  I’m going to blue sky here…
Blue Sky: adjective – using the imagination to think of ideas that do not yet have practical uses or make money.

can-stem-cells-cure-down-syndrome

How can stem cells possibly modify a genetic disorder?   Maybe they can’t, but maybe they can.  Epigenetics tells us that our gene expressions are constantly changing and our concept of what can and can’t change in the human body is constantly evolving.  Are the stem cells modifying the chromosome?  Conventional science would indicate that this is impossible.  But maybe we are seeing the results from a change in phenotype without a change in genotype.  15 years ago, conventional science was positive that heart cells couldn’t regenerate either.  We still have an enormous amount to learn.  Perhaps our genetics are even less stable than we thought?

Non-scientist gene therapy? Gene therapy is a technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease.  Three techniques of gene therapy are:

  • Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene.
  • Inactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is functioning improperly.
  • Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease.

Is it so far fetched to imagine that the stem cells can do already what scientists do?  We know stem cells can heal and regenerate.  Why not also perform gene therapy?  We’ve seen modified allogeneic stem cells recover fetuses (in the womb) from the genetic disorder of severe osteogenesis imperfecta before 2005.  1, 2  We know stem cells can regrow finger tips in kids under 8, become skin cells and then if not needed, reverting back to a nascent state and becoming nail cells and then reverting back, etc.  So maybe they can modify at the genetic level too, but how?

clint_eastwood_-_1960s

What’s mine is…yours?  (The Good, The Bad and the Ugly)  What needs to happen to modify genetics?  Not the science, but the logic.  The stem cells would need to recognize that the chromosomal disorder is atypical – an aberrant construct needing modification – and then change it towards a different paradigm.  Maybe they can do that because the cells used are from someone else (allogenic) – so perhaps the stem cells carry the blue prints and adhere to the donor’s physiology?  
The donor’s physiology then, becomes the road map, the standard which the stem cells are healing the patient towards.  The “normal standard,” so to speak.  It makes some sense as, often, in allogenic stem cell treatment scenarios (Embryonic and induced Pluripotent for example), the genetic anomalies of the donor influence the recipient.  So if the negative elements within the donor can influence the patient, why not the positive?  Why wouldn’t the relative genetic normalcies of the donor influence the physiology of the recipient?
 

An improvement by any other name would smell just as sweet?  ‘“He started babbling and crawling, and his facial features underwent a change.” The boy, who lives in Singapore, is now 3 years old. “He continues to develop age-appropriate skills,” says Titus.’  

If the indicators and symptoms of  Down Syndrome reduced or went away  and they ARE tied to the genetics, how did that happen? If the indicators and symptoms of  Down Syndrome reduced or went away and they are NOT tied to the genetics, maybe the connections between the cause and the result is not as rigid as we thought.  Can someone have the chromosomal variant of Down Syndrome but have no indicators and no symptoms?   Something very worthwhile to work towards.  Perhaps we have to expand our view of what it means to recover from an illness beyond just reversing the criteria we currently use to define the disease.  

What if  everything else in the body works better due to the stem cells?  The circulatory system, the GI, the neurological, the lymph and all of ancillary parts and pieces work better resulting in a greater capacity for learning, growth, development, etc.  We know the central nervous system does regenerate as well as the brain, though very slowly; so if you can improve the workings of every part of the body, even without addressing the additional chromosome issue of Down Syndrome, wouldn’t that potentially result in the smartest, strongest, healthiest person with Down Syndrome?  Isn’t that significant improvement?

If you were diagnosed with cancer but there was a simple treatment which would allow you to have no symptoms and you could live a full and complete life; curing cancer wouldn’t really matter to you, would it?  That goal would cease to be our priority.  Now we are shifting from disease mitigation to quantifiable improvements in the measurable criteria by which the Down Syndrome patient is defined.  Maybe negating the symptoms and the ramifications of a disease is equal in importance to curing it.  Maybe it is even easier to do and the patient won’t be able to tell the difference between the two.   The patient; healthier, better, with fewer or no symptoms.  Isn’t that what we are all working towards anyway?

IS that what we are all working towards?  Survey says…
The Purist says: “Scam!  You can’t fix genetic conditions.  You didn’t fix the Down Syndrome!”
The Parent says: “My child’s ability to xyz has improved!  They are at age level in school and on height and weight and on and on…”
The Prognosis says: “Patient presents with fewer or none of the indicators and symptoms commonly associated with Down Syndrome and what is exhibited is more mild in nature.”
The Pragmatist says:  “This advancement in therapies for Down Syndrome allows the patient to live a normal life, unburdened by the symptoms and long term ramifications of the disease.”
The Future says: “We have seen a lower incidence of the common conditions associated with this Down Syndrome – various congenital and progressive medical conditions such as mental retardation, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal anomalies, skeletal anomalies, leukemia and Alzheimer’s disease.”

Adverse side affects?  The cells used were Human Embryonic stem cells.  Now, they are very powerful as they have the capacity to differentiate into the hundreds of cells in the human body…but they also have a history of rejection and cysts and tumors which can become cancerous.  This is an area of great concern and I am very curious as to how the doctors addressed these issues or felt they were insignificant.  This issue needs more research…

Taoist philosophy says: ‘“Water always seeks the easiest path, the common level of life. When it reaches a spot where there is a blockage, water finds the easiest path around the blockage. Or, if it can’t find a way around the blockage, it continues to assemble. The water gets deeper and deeper until finally the level increases and it flows over the blockage. It uses itself to go beyond whatever it needs to go beyond.” Eventually, water wears down even the hardest rock. Proof of this is seen in the Grand Canyon. The power of water may not be evident right away; over time, though, the massive mountain is worn away while the stream remains.’  Go around.  Go over.  Go through.  Each has it’s merits and disadvantages. Let’s pursue all as viable paths for the healing of the patient.

Most would argue that stem cells encompass the most significant change to disease treatment and medicine in all history.  Stem cells are a game changer.  THE game changer.

If stem cells are the game changer…

maybe it’s past time we changed HOW WE KEEP SCORE.

down-syndrome-chromosome

Clinic claims it has used stem cells to treat Down’s syndrome

A clinic in India says it has used stem cells to treat Down’s syndrome in up to 14 people, but the announcement has alarmed independent researchers

By Andy Coghlan

A CLINIC claims it has used stem cells to treat Down’s syndrome in up to 14 people. “As far as we know, it’s the first time that stem cells have been used to treat Down’s syndrome,” says Jyoti Titus, manager at Nutech Mediworld clinic in New Delhi, India.

The announcement has set alarm bells ringing. It’s not clear to independent stem cell or Down’s experts how stem cells – which can form many types of tissue – might treat Down’s, a genetic disorder caused by having an extra chromosome.

Down'sDown’s: an extra chromosome 21 – Department of Clinical Cytogenetics, Addenbrookes Hospital/Science Photo Library

“The use of these cells does not make biological sense and may place the babies at considerable risk of side effects,”says John Rasko of the International Society for Cellular Therapy.

Clinically proven stem cell therapies are only just starting to become available. The first off-the-shelf stem cell treatment to gain regulatory approval was launched in Japan last year, and prevents transplanted organs from attacking their recipients. A number of research teams are putting other experimental stem cell therapies through stringent clinical trials.

But hundreds of clinics worldwide already offer stem cell treatments unvetted by regulatory authorities. A patent held by the clinic’s medical director, Geeta Shroff, from 2007 suggests that the cells offered by Nutech Mediworld could be helpful for over 70 types of conditions, from Down’s syndrome to Alzheimer’s disease, and even vegetative states.

“The use of stem cells doesn’t make sense and may place the babies at considerable risk”

Most treatments for children with Down’s syndrome centre on support – including speech and behavioural therapies. But in a study published last year Shroff, reported that a baby with Down’s syndrome developed better understanding, improved limb muscle tone, and the ability to recognise his relatives after receiving stem cells (Journal of Medical Cases, doi.org/bx3v).

No controls

“There’s no comparison to similar individuals with Down’s syndrome, and no indication this therapy had any effect whatsoever, so the author has no basis at all for saying the injections were beneficial,” says Elizabeth Fisher at University College London.

But since no other treatment was given, it is evident that the child’s improvements were due to stem cell treatment, says Titus. “He started babbling and crawling, and his facial features underwent a change.” The boy, who lives in Singapore, is now 3 years old. “He continues to develop age-appropriate skills,” says Titus.

Shroff’s study says she injected the cells, developed from a donated embryo, into his blood, back muscles and under his skin, as well as giving them as a nasal spray. “Stem cells have an innate ability to repair and regenerate, and that is how the baby’s condition improved,” says Titus.

“There’s no obvious way in which this treatment would have worked,” says Victor Tybulewicz at the Francis Crick Institute in London. To have any effect, neural stem cells would need to be injected into the brain, he says.

“The author appears to have no idea of where [the cells] are going, or what they’re doing,” says Fisher. “It’s even worse now we know they’ve treated 14 patients, not just one.”

Titus says that the way the cells were developed means recipients don’t need immunosuppressants. But Tybulewicz disagrees. “I expect the most likely outcome of the injections would have been that they were recognised as foreign and eliminated by the immune system,” he says. More details of the biological impact of the stem cells will be revealed in a study that has been submitted for publication, says Titus.

Nutech Mediworld isn’t the only clinic offering stem cells. An analysis led by Rasko last year identified 417 unique websites advertising stem cell treatments directly to patients. Of these, 187 were linked to 215 clinics in the US. Thirty-five websites were linked to organisations in India.

Although India introduced national guidelines on clinical stem cell research and treatments a decade ago, these are not legally binding.

This article appeared in print under the headline “Clinic claims stem cells treat Down’s syndrome”

 

ZEROING IN ON LEUKEMIA SMART BOMBS

In PHARMA AND DRUGS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 31, 2017 at 1:30 pm

A little over a week ago, I posted an article that described:
Of the 100 million BULK CANCER CELLS in a 1-cm cancer tumor, there are about 1,000 to 10,000 CANCER STEM CELLS and those cells are up to 15 times more active and may be the only cells responsible for cancer cell reproduction and metastasis.

Scientists have zeroed in even deeper and targeted a new ‘CD99’ molecule expressed on certain stem cells that drive human leukemia malignancies.  They’ve designed antibodies that can directly kill human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells.

cd99-2164277470_3687e795d0_z

protein-sugar molecule, CD99

Researchers design antibody that recognizes and destroys blood cancer stem cells

Published on January 25, 2017 at 9:44 PM ·

Building on this discovery, the study authors designed an antibody that recognizes and destroys CD99-covered leukemia cells while sparing normal blood stem cells, a finding confirmed by experiments in human cells and in mice with AML cells. Antibodies are immune system proteins that stick to a specific target, like a protein on the surface of invading bacterium. In recent years, researchers have become capable of engineering antibodies so that they target disease-related molecules.

“Our findings not only identify a new molecule expressed on stem cells that drive these human malignancies, but we show that antibodies against this target can directly kill human AML stem cells,” says corresponding study author, Christopher Y. Park, MD, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Pathology at NYU Langone and its Perlmutter Cancer Center.

“While we still have important details to work out, CD99 is likely to be an exploitable therapeutic target for most AML and MDS patients, and we are working urgently to finalize a therapy for human testing,” says Park.

Direct Cell Killing

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) arise from abnormal stem cells that build up in bone marrow until they interfere with normal blood cell production. Patients struggle with anemia, increased risk for infection, and bleeding.

The study results are based on the understanding that cancers, like normal tissues, contain stem cells that give rise to all the other cells. Such “cancer stem cells” are known to be major drivers of many cancer types. In AML, a small group of leukemic stem cells become incapable of maturing into red or white blood cells as intended. Most leukemias respond initially to standard treatment, but relapse is common as standard treatments fail to kill leukemia stem cells, which continue to multiply.

leukemia-741px-symptoms_of_leukemia

The research team became interested in CD99 when they observed that it occurs frequently on AML and MDS cells, and then noted in the literature that CD99 is elevated in a rare bone cancer called Ewing’s Sarcoma. This prompted them to see if CD99 was important in the development of these blood diseases.

When researchers examined stem cell populations from 79 AML and 24 MDS patients, they found that approximately 85 percent of stem cells in both groups expressed high levels of CD99. The levels were so high that diseased stem cells could be cleanly separated from related, normal stem cells in AML patients.

Upon confirming that CD99 was abundant on leukemia stem cells, the research team then made several CD99 antibodies, and chose to focus on the one that most effectively killed those cells. Researchers found that when the study antibody attaches itself to CD99 on the surface of a cancer stem cell, it sends a signal inside the cell that increases the activity of enzymes called SRC-family kinases.

While the team does not yet know why, the binding of their antibody to CD99, and the subsequent activation of these enzymes, causes leukemia stem cells to die. Most cells with genetic mistakes leading to cancer “sense” they are flawed and self-destruct, but CD99, so the theory goes, may be part of a mechanism that prevents this. As the antibody binds to CD99, it appears to undo this block on self-destruction.

“With the appropriate support, we believe we can rapidly determine the best antibodies for use in patients, produce them at the quality needed to verify our results, and apply for permission to begin clinical trials,” says Park.

While the most common acute leukemia affecting adults (22,000 new cases each year) and expected to become more prevalent as the population ages, AML it is still relatively rare, accounting for 1.2 percent of U.S. cancer deaths. About 15,000 mostly elderly patients are diagnosed with MDS each year as well.

 

AUSTRALIAN OF THE YEAR, ‘NOSE’ STEM CELLS

In Doctors Practicing Excellence, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 27, 2017 at 1:50 pm

Biomedical scientist Alan Mackay-Sim is one of the pioneers in stem cell research, digging into (pun intended) the enormously productive (flowing?) area of “olfactoric mucosal stem cells” or neurological stem cells from inside your nose responsible for your sense of smell.

  1. Lu, J.; Feron, F.; Ho, S. H.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Waite, P. M. E. Transplantation of nasal olfactory tissue promotes partial recovery in paraplegic adult rats. Brain Research 2001, 889, 344-357.
  2. Lu, J.; Feron, F.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Waite, P. M. E. Olfactory ensheathing cells promote locomotor recovery after delayed transplantation into transected spinal cord. Brain 2002, 125, 14-21.

null

Alan Mackay-Sim, the scientist whose miracle made a paraplegic walk again, named Australian of the Year

JANUARY 25 2017 – Biomedical scientist Alan Mackay-Sim, whose research helped achieve a feat described as “more impressive than man walking on the moon”, has been named the 2017 Australian of the Year for his pioneering stem cell research.

Professor Mackay-Sim’s work was central to the 2014 surgery that allowed Darek Fidyka, a Polish firefighter, to walk again and even ride a custom-built bicycle. This made him the first (well, not the first but no less significant) paraplegic in the world to recover mobility after the complete severing of the spinal nerves. The success was hailed by fellow researcher Geoff Raisman as more impressive than the moon landing.

Professor Mackay-Sim is a leading global authority on the human sense of smell and the biology of nasal cells. The successful surgery that allowed Mr Fidyka to walk again involved taking cells from his nose, growing them in a lab and injecting them into his spinal cord.

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull gives Alan Mackay-Sim his honour.

Professor Mackay-Sim, 65, himself relied on a stem cell transplant two years ago when he was diagnosed with myeloma, a rare form of blood cancer that develops in the bone marrow.

He was presented with his Australian of the Year award by Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull on Wednesday night…

 

A history of stem cell treatments for spinal cord injury

(NOT) FIRST PARALYZED HUMAN TREATED WITH STEM CELLS FOR SCI

In ALL ARTICLES, DISEASE INFO, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, THIS IS SPINAL... on January 27, 2017 at 12:05 pm

First paralyzed human treated with stem cells has now regained his upper body movement http://theheartysoul.com/stem-cells-cure-paralysis/

stem-cell-patient

CONGRATS! But…
NOT the FIRST!

This is the sort of article which makes me crazy because on the one hand, it is a triumph!  A mainstream coverage of a stem cell success, increasing awareness and helping to erode our entrenched concepts of what can be done with medicine and what is and isn’t really “incurable.”

On the other….it grossly misrepresents the long history of stem cell successes versus spinal cord injury. It devalues the patients who have recovered, the loved ones who supported them during their treatments and the doctors who worked their butts off developing the protocols and pushing the envelops, often in the face of massive popular skepticism.

 
These people, these patients and loved ones and doctors who risked everything; life, limb, money, time and more…they are the mavericks, the trail blazers, the ones who sacrificed everything for the one pure goal of advancing medicine, of advancing healing. They deserve to be honored and credited with their barrier breaking work, not dismissed in some ill conceived misinformation campaign, weakly relying upon the un-sturdy columns of anti-Piaget-ian Object Permanence.

hear_speak_see_no_evil_toshogu_cropped_enhanced

And no mention of Spinal Cord Injury and Stem Cell Treatment should be made without a HUGE nod to the God-Fathers, Prof Mackay-Sim and Dr Carlos Lima.

Dr Mackay-Sim was researching olfactoric mucosal stem cell applications for spinal cord injury in murine models as far back as 2001:

  1. Lu, J.; Feron, F.; Ho, S. H.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Waite, P. M. E. Transplantation of nasal olfactory tissue promotes partial recovery in paraplegic adult rats. Brain Research 2001, 889, 344-357.
  2. Lu, J.; Feron, F.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Waite, P. M. E. Olfactory ensheathing cells promote locomotor recovery after delayed transplantation into transected spinal cord. Brain 2002, 125, 14-21.

Dr Lima was “improving” and “recovering” Spinal Cord Injury patients with stem cells derived from their own noses as far back as…wait for it…2003.

“Olfactory stem cells have been shown to be most versatile. Indeed, Adult stem cells from the nose have now helped paraplegic patients walk. From the primary source, Carlos Lima et al., Olfactory mucosal autografts and rehabilitation for chronic traumatic spinal cord injury, Neurorehabil Neural Repair 24(1):10–22 | doi: 10.1177/1545968309347685.”

“Of the 13 patients assessed by functional studies, 1 paraplegic patient (patient 9) can ambulate with 2 crutches and knee braces with no physical assistance and 10 other patients can ambulate with walkers with or without braces with physical assistance.

One tetraplegic [paralyzed in both arms and legs] patient (patient 13) ambulates with a walker, without knee braces or physical assistance.”

Why haven’t you heard of this?  I don’t know.  Perhaps you missed the “Testimony of Ms. Laura Dominguez, delivered at a hearing held by the United States Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space on July 14, 2004. Accessed at: http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=1268andwit_id=3673

If that doesn’t work, go here and skip ahead to 1 hour, 16 minutes to 2hrs 21min: https://www.c-span.org/video/?182693-1/stem-cell-research-treatment

Laura Dominguez, also featured in the article  here, was treated in 2004.  By then,

Dr “Lima’s procedure had proven successful in 26 patients, states Dr. Jean D. Peduzzi-Nelson, a co-researcher at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. [9] Dominguez was the tenth person in the world and the second American to undergo the surgery.

Completion of the surgery permitted a return to the United States, which ushered in the continuation of the therapeutic process and the resumption of home life in San Antonio. After an MRI was conducted, physicians informed her that her spinal cord had begun healing and that 70 percent of the lesion had recovered into normal spinal tissue. Within six months she had acquired sensation down to the abdominal region. By 2004, she had gained upper body agility and the ability to stand for extended periods of time with the aid of a walker. In addition, she reported improved motor skills, including the ability to stand on her toes and contract her quadriceps and hamstring muscles. She also announced that she had walked more than 1400 feet with the use of braces and outside help. Laura is inspired by the results and hopes to walk unassisted by the time she turns 21. [10]

Not first.  Missed it by just a baker’s dozen of years.

Here are just a small selection of more stem cell heroes from the past:

SPINAL CORD SUCCESSES

 https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/25/spinal-cord-injury-success/

 

MORE SPINAL CORD SUCCESSES

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/25/more-spinal-cord-injury-success-from-adult-stem-cells/

 

STEM CELLS FOR SPINAL CORD

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/20/stem-cell-surgery-spinal-cord-injury/

 

16 YEAR OLD PARALYZED KARTING CHAMP

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/09/07/16-year-old-paralyzed-karting-champ-undergoing-stem-cell-treatment/

 

PARALYZED WOMAN WALKS ON 21ST BIRTHDAY
https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/04/23/strength-and-determination-help-paralyzed-woman-walk-on-21st-birthday/

 

QUEST TO CURE HIS DAUGHTER

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/04/14/a-father%e2%80%99s-quest-to-cure-his-daughter-well-blog-nytimescom/

 

PARALYSIS IN RATS REVERSED

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/04/02/adult-spinal-stem-cells-reverse-paralysis-in-rats/

 

ADULT STEM CELL PROGRAMS

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/30/il-sussidiarionet-raisman-the-best-results-are-coming-from-the-adult-stem-cell-research-programmes/

 

IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE FOR THE PARALYZED

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/26/adult-stem-cell-study-demonstrates-improved-quality-of-life-for-patients-suffering-from-spinal-cord-injury/

 

A PERSONAL NOTE

http://reflectionsofaparalytic.com/?p=2052

 

FUNDRAISING FOR SPINAL CORD/STEM CELL THERAPY

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/20/fundraiser-for-spinal-cord-injury-patient-for-stem-cell-treatment/

 

STEM CELLS HELP 52 SPINAL CORD INJURY PATIENTS

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/19/stem-cell-research-helps-52-spinal-cord-injury-patients-stem-cell-research-adult-stem-cell-research-spinal-cord-injury/

 

PARALYZED LAWMAKER MAKES STEM CELL DECISION

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/11/paralyzed-ri-lawmaker-hails-stem-cell-decision-international-herald-tribune/

 

JAPAN AHEAD OF USA IN STEM CELLS FOR SCI

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/02/10/spinal-cord-injury-sci-stem-cell-trials-japan-plays-catch-up/

 

CHINA AHEAD OF USA FOR STEM CELL TREATMENTS/SCI

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/stem-cell-research-yields-benefits-for-american-man-traveling-to-china/

 

WHY DO WE PRETEND STEM CELLS DON’T WORK?

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/02/18/adult-stem-cells-get-the-shaft-none-are-so-blind-as-those-who-will-not-see/

 

IRAN AHEAD OF USA IN STEM CELLS

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/02/12/stem-cells-in-iran-catch-up/

 

 

TODDLER, CANCER, STEM CELLS, SPINAL CORD INJURY

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/02/08/toddler-helps-bring-about-a-medical-miracle-cancer-spimal-cord-injury/

 

REGENERATING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2011/10/17/regenerating-the-central-nervous-system/

 

Stepping Towards A Paralysis Cure, A Tale Of Two Supermen Stem Cells Cure 23 Year Old Male of Paralysis – C6…-C7 injury

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/03/28/stepping-towards-a-paralysis-cure-a-tale-of-two-supermen-stem-cells-cure-23-year-old-male-of-paralysis-c6-c7-injury/

 

Paraplegic – Adult Stem Cell Success Stories – Laura Dominguez

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/paraplegic-adult-stem-cell-success-stories-laura-dominguez/

 

PARALYZED COUSINS PLEASED WITH STEM CELL TREATMENT

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2010/02/15/paralyzed-cousins-pleased-with-stem-cell-treatment/

 

Successful Stem Cell Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury in Dogs

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/successful-stem-cell-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-dogs/

 

Spinal Cord Injury Patient Wins…and Loses

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/spinal-cord-injury-patient-wins-and-loses/

 

STEM CELLS FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/12/31/stem-cells-for-spinal-cord-injury/

 

Adult Stem Cell Grafts Help Paralyzed Heal

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/10/21/adult-stem-cell-grafts-help-paralyzed-heal/

 

Medical hope as paralysed dog cured by stem cell therapy

https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2009/10/08/medical-hope-as-paralysed-dog-cured-by-stem-cell-therapy-mirror-co-uk/

 

and even, Major the Roseville police dog gets stem cell treatment

http://blogs.citypages.com/blotter/2011/01/major_police_dog_stem_cell.php

 

Time to set the record straight.  Too many have waited too long to get news which blacks out a dozen years of research and progress.

WITH CANCER, AIM ONLY FOR FURTHER GROWTH

In PHARMA AND DRUGS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 22, 2017 at 10:16 am

Did we just figure out which cells actually cause the creation of more cancer cells?

  • A 1-cm cancer tumor has about 100 million BULK CANCER CELLS.
  • A 1-cm cancer tumor has about 1,000 to 10,000 CANCER STEM CELLS.
  • We know that cancer cells may pass through blood vessel walls to metastasize Moses-stem-cell-pathways-and-maybe-metastatic-cancers/
  • We know that long telomeres increase risk of cancer in cells.

Scientists found that cancer stem cells which have the enzyme called Telomeras, were found to be up to 15 times more active and may be the only cells responsible for cancer cell reproduction and metastasis.
“We can now begin to think of cancer stem cells as being at the heart of tumour regrowth and turn our efforts away from ‘bulk cancer cells’, which don’t really drive tumour recurrence and metastasis.”

Now, we know how to aim at the cells responsible for tumor growth we can change how we fight cancer!

Puts a whole new spin on the Niki Lauda quote:

Stem cell ‘marking’ study offers alterative hypothesis of cancer metastasis

Date:January 18, 2017- Source: University of Salford – Summary: Stem cells are among the most energetically activated, migratory and proliferative sub-populations of tumour cells, according to observations by scholars at the Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Salford.

Cancerous stem cells are often left behind after chemotherapy with the potential to create new tumours — a process called recurrence and metastasis.

In research published in the journal Oncotarget, the Salford team conclude that stem cell characteristics and behaviour are instrumental in metastasis and believe the key to their reactivation is an enzyme called Telomerase, or hTERT.

Using lung, breast and ovarian cancer cells, the team set out to identify which cells are cancerous by their levels of Telomerase, an enzyme which endows cells with the ability to multiply.

To achieve this, they followed Telomerase activity with a fluorescent protein, GFP, more commonly found in jellyfish, effectively colouring each cells to mark it either ‘active’ or ‘inactive’.

Cells highlighted ‘fluorescent’ (hTERT-high) were found to be up to 15 times more active than others with an vastly increased capacity for migration and cell proliferation.

Michael Lisanti, Professor of Translational Medicine at the University of Salford said: “We reasoned that if we could spot the telomerase activity, we could identify which cells were cancerous.

“What we had not expected was to find the very rapid rate of proliferation of the cancer stem cells.

“Clearly, this contradicts the accepted view that stem cells do not proliferate quickly, and offers an alternative view of the process of metastasis, and moreover, a method of identifying, isolating and potentially killing tumour-forming cells.”

As part of the study, the team found that FDA-approved drugs, such as doxycycline and palbociclib, were effective at halting cancer stem cell propagation. Palbociclib blocks the activity of proteins known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and inhibits the division of cancer cells, but until now hadn’t been shown to effectively block cancer stem cell reproduction.

“The use of these FDA-approved drugs may provide a mechanism for treating metastatic disease on a larger scale and certainly opens the way for new Phase II clinical trials in multiple cancer types,” adds Professor Lisanti.

Dr Federica Sotgia, Reader of Translational Medicine at the University of Salford said: “We can now begin to think of cancer stem cells as being at the heart of tumour regrowth and turn our efforts away from ‘bulk cancer cells’, which don’t really drive tumour recurrence and metastasis.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Salford. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Gloria Bonuccelli, Maria Peiris-Pages, Bela Ozsvari, Ubaldo E. Martinez-Outschoorn, Federica Sotgia, Michael P. Lisanti. Targeting cancer stem cell propagation with palbociclib, a CDK4/6 inhibitor: Telomerase drives tumor cell heterogeneity. Oncotarget, 2016; DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.14196

MOSES, STEM CELL PATHWAYS AND MAYBE METASTATIC CANCERS

In ALL ARTICLES, DISEASE INFO, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 20, 2017 at 9:32 am

When white blood cells leave a vessel through the vessel wall, they contort their shape to pass through.  But when stem cells exit a blood vessel, they don’t change their shape.  They just pass on through the wall and the endothelial cells lining the vessel do the work by stretching around them and then actively expelling them.   In other words, the stem cells are the Moses to the parting of the cells of the blood vessels:
“…when we looked at therapeutic stem cells… the endothelial cells not only changed their shape in order to surround the stem cell, they actually pushed the stem cells out of the blood vessel. We’ve named this process angiopellosis, and it represents an alternative way for cells to leave blood vessels.”  Which begs the question…is this how cancer cells move around too?

Stem Cell Finding May Improve Understanding of Metastatic Cancers

  • A stem cell exits the bloodstream through angiopellosis. [Alice MacGregor Harvey, North Carolina State University]

  • Researchers at North Carolina State University have discovered that therapeutic stem cells exit the bloodstream in a different manner than was previously thought. This process, called angiopellosis by the researchers, has implications for improving our understanding of not only intravenous stem cell therapies, but also metastatic cancers.

    When white blood cells need to get to the site of an infection, they can exit the bloodstream via a process known as diapedesis. In diapedesis, the white blood cell changes its shape to squeeze between or through the epithelial cells that form the walls of the blood vessel. Diapedesis is a well-understood process, and researchers believed that other types of cells, like therapeutic stem cells or even metastatic cancer cells, exited blood vessels in a similar way, with the cells pushing or squeezing themselves out.

    But a group of researchers led by Ke Cheng, Ph.D., associate professor of molecular biomedical sciences at NC State with a joint appointment in the NC State/University of North Carolina (UNC)-Chapel Hill Department of Biomedical Engineering, found that these stem cells behaved differently. Their study (“Angiopellosis as an Alternative Mechanism of Cell Extravasation”) appears online in Stem Cells.

    Therapeutic stem cells share the same ability to exit the bloodstream and target particular tissues that white blood cells do. But the precise way that they did so was not well understood, so Dr. Cheng and his team used a zebrafish model to study the process. The genetically modified zebrafish embryos were transparent and had fluorescently marked green blood vessels. Researchers injected the embryos with white blood cells and cardiac stem cells from humans, rats, and dogs. These cells had all been marked with a red fluorescent protein.

    Through time-lapse, three-dimensional, light sheet microscopic imaging, Dr. Cheng and his team could trace the progress of these cells as they left the blood vessel. The white blood cells exited via diapedesis, as expected. When stem cells exited the blood vessel, however, the endothelial cells lining the vessel actively expelled them. Membranes surrounding the endothelial cells on either side of the stem cell stretched themselves around the stem cell, then met in the middle to push the stem cell out of the vessel.

    “When you’re talking about diapedesis, the white blood cell is active because it changes its shape in order to exit. The endothelial cells in the blood vessel are passive,” Dr. Cheng says. “But when we looked at therapeutic stem cells, we found the opposite was true—the stem cells were passive—and the endothelial cells not only changed their shape in order to surround the stem cell, they actually pushed the stem cells out of the blood vessel. We’ve named this process angiopellosis, and it represents an alternative way for cells to leave blood vessels.”

    The researchers found two other key differences between angiopellosis and diapedesis: one, that angiopellosis takes hours, rather than minutes, to occur and two, that angiopellosis allows more than one cell to exit at a time.

    “Angiopellosis is really a group ticket for cells to get out of blood vessels,” notes Dr. Cheng. “We observed clusters of cells passing through in this way. Obviously, this leads us to questions about whether other types of cells, like metastatic cancer cells, may be using this more effective way to exit the bloodstream, and what we may need to do to stop them.”

 

via

%d bloggers like this: