DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘protein’

TZAP! GOES THE TELOMERE FUSE

In DISEASE INFO, HEALTH AND WELLNESS, OFF THE BEATEN PATH, PHARMA AND DRUGS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on January 21, 2017 at 9:44 am

burning-cancle-both-emds

EVERY TIME A CELL DIVIDES, A TELOMERE LOSES IT’S WINGS

  • The length of a telomere controls cell age.
  • Each time a cell splits, the telomere gets smaller.
  • Too long and cancer risk increases.
  • Too short and no more cell division.

Scripps Research Institute discovered the TZAP that controls telomere length.  “TZAP: a Telomere-Associated Protein involved in telomere length control”

Master regulator of cellular aging discovered

Date: January 12, 2017 – Source: Scripps Research Institute – Summary: Scientists have discovered a protein that fine-tunes the cellular clock involved in aging.
Cell culture under microscope (stock image).
Credit: © sinitar / Fotolia
 Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered a protein that fine-tunes the cellular clock involved in aging.

This novel protein, named TZAP, binds the ends of chromosomes and determines how long telomeres, the segments of DNA that protect chromosome ends, can be. Understanding telomere length is crucial because telomeres set the lifespan of cells in the body, dictating critical processes such as aging and the incidence of cancer.

“Telomeres represent the clock of a cell,” said TSRI Associate Professor Eros Lazzerini Denchi, corresponding author of the new study, published online today in the journal Science. “You are born with telomeres of a certain length, and every time a cell divides, it loses a little bit of the telomere. Once the telomere is too short, the cell cannot divide anymore.”

Naturally, researchers are curious whether lengthening telomeres could slow aging, and many scientists have looked into using a specialized enzyme called telomerase to “fine-tune” the biological clock. One drawback they’ve discovered is that unnaturally long telomeres are a risk factor in developing cancer.

“This cellular clock needs to be finely tuned to allow sufficient cell divisions to develop differentiated tissues and maintain renewable tissues in our body and, at the same time, to limit the proliferation of cancerous cells,” said Lazzerini Denchi.

In this new study, the researcher found that TZAP controls a process called telomere trimming, ensuring that telomeres do not become too long.

“This protein sets the upper limit of telomere length,” explained Lazzerini Denchi. “This allows cells to proliferate — but not too much.”

For the last few decades, the only proteins known to specifically bind telomeres is the telomerase enzyme and a protein complex known as the Shelterin complex. The discovery TZAP, which binds specifically to telomeres, was a surprise since many scientists in the field believed there were no additional proteins binding to telomeres.

“There is a protein complex that was found to localize specifically at chromosome ends, but since its discovery, no protein has been shown to specifically localize to telomeres,” said study first author Julia Su Zhou Li, a graduate student in the Lazzerini Denchi lab.

“This study opens up a lot of new and exciting questions,” said Lazzerini Denchi.

In addition to Lazzerini Denchi and Li, authors of the study, “TZAP: a telomere-associated protein involved in telomere length control,” were Tatevik Simavorian, Cristina Bartocci and Jill Tsai of TSRI; Javier Miralles Fuste of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the University of Gothenburg; and Jan Karlseder of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

The study was supported by the American Cancer Society (grant RSG-14-186-01), the Swedish Research Council International (grant D0730801) and the National Institutes of Health (grant R01GM087476 and R01CA174942).


Story Source:

Materials provided by Scripps Research Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Julia Su Zhou Li, Javier Miralles Fuste, Tatevik Simavorian, Cristina Bartocci, Jill Tsai, Jan Karlseder, Eros Lazzerini Denchi. TZAP: A telomere-associated protein involved in telomere length control. Science, 2017; DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6752

Groundbreaking New Understanding of Stem Cells: Findings May Improve Ability to Manipulate Cell Fate and Promote Healing | www.sciencemagnews.com

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on May 21, 2010 at 5:52 pm

Groundbreaking New Understanding of Stem Cells: Findings May Improve Ability to Manipulate Cell Fate and Promote Healing

The study, led by Scripps Research Associate Professor Sheng Ding and Senior Director of the Scripps Research Center for Mass Spectrometry Gary Siuzdak, was published in an advance, online edition of the journal Nature Chemical Biology on May 2, 2010.

In the research, the team used a unique approach to better understand stem cells, which have the ability to change or “differentiate” into adult cell types such as hair cells, skin cells, nerve cells. Understanding how stem cells mature opens the door for scientists and physicians to manipulate the process to meet the needs of patients, potentially treating such intractable conditions as Parkinson’s disease and spinal injury.”In the past, scientists trying to understand stem cell biology focused on genes and proteins,” said Ding. “In our study, we looked at stem cell regulation in a different way — on the biochemical level, on a functional level. With metabolomics profiling, we were able to look at naturally occurring small molecules and how they control cell fate on a completely different level.”The new paper describes parts of the stem cell “metabolome” — the complete set of substances “metabolites” formed in metabolism, including all naturally occurring small molecules, biofluids, and tissues. The scientists then compared this profile to those of more mature cells, specifically of nerve cells and heart cells.When the results were tallied, the scientists had found about 60 previously unidentified metabolites associated with the progression of stem cells to mature cells, as well as an unexpected pattern in the chemistry that mirrored the cells’ increasing biological maturity.

via Groundbreaking New Understanding of Stem Cells: Findings May Improve Ability to Manipulate Cell Fate and Promote Healing | www.sciencemagnews.com.

Stem cells “seek and destroy” cancer cells: Study

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on February 14, 2010 at 7:16 pm

Stem cells “seek and destroy” cancer cells: Study

BY JULIE STEENHUYSEN, REUTERS

CHICAGO (Reuters) – Genetically engineered stem cells from bone marrow showed promise as a potential new way to deliver a cancer-killing protein to tumors, British researchers said on Tuesday…

Experiments in cell cultures and in mice showed the adult stem cells -- a type known as mesenchymal stem cells -- could home in on cancer cells and deliver a lethal protein that attacked only the cancer while sparing normal healthy tissue.

Experiments in cell cultures and in mice showed the adult stem cells — a type known as mesenchymal stem cells — could home in on cancer cells and deliver a lethal protein that attacked only the cancer while sparing normal healthy tissue.

Photograph by: Darren Hauck, Getty Images

Discovery aims to correct cellular defects leading to diabetes

In Doctors Practicing Excellence on January 5, 2010 at 3:49 am

Discovery Aims to Correct Cellular Defects Leading to Diabetes

ScienceDaily (Jan. 4, 2010) — A new research discovery published online in the FASEB Journal may change the perception and treatment of diabetes. That’s because scientists have moved closer toward correcting the root cause of the disease rather than managing its symptoms. Specifically researchers identified a protein (G6PD protein) and its antioxidant product (NAPDH) that both prevent the death and promote the growth of cells which produce and release insulin in the pancreas (beta cells).

“Abnormally high levels of oxidants are thought to be a major cause of diabetes and the complications of diabetes, as well as many other diseases,” said Robert C. Stanton, M.D., co-author of the study, from Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. “By understanding the specific defects in processes that either produce too many oxidants or not enough antioxidants, a new era of highly specific, targeted treatments will emerge that very effectively treat or possibly prevent many of these diseases.”

via Discovery aims to correct cellular defects leading to diabetes.

New ‘Schizophrenia Gene’ Prompts Researchers To Test Potential Drug Target

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on October 29, 2009 at 2:28 am

New ‘Schizophrenia Gene’ Prompts Researchers To Test Potential Drug Target

ScienceDaily (Oct. 27, 2009) — Johns Hopkins scientists report having used a commercially available drug to successfully “rescue” animal brain cells that they had intentionally damaged by manipulating a newly discovered gene that links susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and autism.

https://i0.wp.com/www.physio-pedia.com/images/a/a0/Schizophrenia_graphic_high_contrast1.jpg

Schizophrenia

The rescue, described as “surprisingly complete” by the researchers, was accomplished with rapamycin, a drug known to act on a protein called mTOR whose role involves the production of other proteins. The idea to test this drug’s effectiveness at rescuing impaired nerve cells occurred to the team as a result of having discovered a new gene that appears to act in concert with two previously identified schizophrenia susceptibility genes, one of which is involved in the activation of the protein mTOR. This piecing together of multiple genes adds support for the idea that susceptibility to schizophrenia and autism may have common genetic fingerprints, according to the researchers.

https://i2.wp.com/cdn.zmescience.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/autism-awareness.jpg

Autism

The newfound gene, dubbed KIAA1212, serves as a bridge linking two schizophrenia genes: DISC1 and AKT. Suspecting KIAA1212 as one of many potential binding partners interacting with DISC1, whose name is an acronym for “Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia,” the researchers genetically shut down the production of DISC1 proteins in newly born neurons in the hippocampus region of an adult mouse brain. The hippocampus contains a niche where native stem cells give rise to fully developed new neurons. The idea was to deliberately cause these cells to malfunction and then watch what happened.

http://huehueteotl.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/amygdala_hippocampus_lateral_large.jpg

Hippocampus

via New ‘Schizophrenia Gene’ Prompts Researchers To Test Potential Drug Target.

BEAUTY OF SCIENCE – Tissue Regeneration

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on October 8, 2009 at 5:33 pm

Evidence of the fusion of stem and muscle cells. In this experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells, which in this case produce a green fluorescent dye, are being cultivated together with muscle cells derived from mice. The picture shows the result of the fusion. In the fused cells, there is evidence of both the stem cell (in green dye), and typical muscle cell protein (red and partially orange because of the overlap of the two colours). The product of the fusion contains both, cell nuclei from the mouse (in blue) and from the human cell (indicated by the arrow). These nuclei can be distinguished by size, and the weak blue-colouring of the mouse nuclei. (Image: Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research)

via Tissue Regeneration Operates Differently Than Expected.

GCKO,GVBP,NPDT,OGNG Wall Street News Alert

In BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS on September 14, 2009 at 11:06 am
NovaGen_Image01

GENova Biotherapeutics

GENova Biotherapeutics, Inc. (OTCBB: GVBP | Quote | Chart | News | PowerRating) up 17.8% on 39 million shares traded.

breast reconstructionOn Sept 10, 2009 GENova Biotherapeutics, Inc. a biotechnology company that identifies, acquires, and develops novel drug targets that disrupt the advance of life-threatening diseases, recently announced it has filed a patent for a potential blockbuster drug target that combats breast cancer. The target, Tetanolic acid, is a tailor-made lipid which induces cell death in breast cancer cells, thus curtailing development of the harmful cancer.

breast cancer cell

breast cancer cell

This novel approach – using proteins to stop cancer – is based on recent discoveries that indicate that most tumors are derived from a cancer stem cell. The technology behind Tetanolic acid involved identifying specific characteristics of these cancer stem cells and then tailoring a lipid (Tetanolic acid) that can identify these characteristics and then attack the malignant cells whilst leaving healthy cells intact. This tailor-made cancer treatment strategy is far superior to any existing therapies, as it terminates the cancer at the source, with no side effects, and no harm to surrounding healthy tissues.

chemotherapy

chemotherapy

“This target has tremendous market potential, as it can ultimately eliminate the need for surgery and chemotherapy,” says Aaron Whiteman for GENova.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death, and is the most common cancer (and cause of cancer death) in women. The demand for new and better treatments for the disease is as urgent as ever.

via GCKO,GVBP,NPDT,OGNG Wall Street News Alert: Stock on the Move: GCKO – September 10, 2009.

Stemedica Selected by World Stem Cell Summit…

In BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS on August 27, 2009 at 8:52 am

Stemedica Selected by World Stem Cell Summit to Present Scientific Discoveries

SAN DIEGO, Aug. 27 /PRNewswire/ — Stemedica Cell Technologies , Inc., (“Stemedica”), a world leader in stem cell research and manufacturing (a licensed manufacturer of clinical grade biological products as licensed by the State of California Food and Drug Branch) continues to advance the stem cell industry with the presentation of two of its latest scientific discoveries at the 2009 World Stem Cell Summit.
Neural Stem Cell Potency Evaluation Model (Chickens)

The first discovery…submitted by Chih-Min Lin, PhD is entitled, “Chicken Embryonic Brain: A Model for Testing Neural Stem Cell Potency.” This Neural Stem Cell Evaluation Model determines the potency of neural stem cells and quickly assesses their ability to migrate and engraft inside the developing brain. Stemedica’s technology allows neural precursors to be distinguished at various stages of their maturation, providing timely and cost effective verification of neural stem cell potency in vivo.

Wound Healing Associated Protein Analysis

The second finding…Ludmila Kharazi, MD, PhD…“Up-Regulation of Wound Healing Associated Proteins in Long-Term Culture of Human Keratinocyte Precursor Cells.” Dr. Kharazi’s work demonstrates that long term cultivation of human keratinocytes in serum free, low-Ca++ media (SFM) leads to the increased expression of genes for wound healing-associated proteins such as fibronectin, metalloproteinase (MMP9, MMP10), and tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA). The purpose of Dr. Kharazi’s work was to determine how the propagation of human skin keratinocyte precursor cells (KPC) in SFM to clinically significant numbers will affect their ability to produce fibronectin and other wound healing associated proteins.

The 2009 World Stem Cell Summit is being held in Baltimore, Maryland from September 21st – 23rd. Presented by the Genetics Policy Institute, the 2009 Summit is hosted by Johns Hopkins University and other leadership organizations from within the stem cell industry, bringing together more than 1,200 researchers, clinicians, business leaders, key policy makers, regulators, advocates, and experts in law & ethics from around the world.

2 Stanford Studies Show Protein Complex Plays Pivotal Role In Stem Cell Development

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 4, 2009 at 11:51 pm

scienceThis may allow scientists to further hone in on the elements that make Induce Pluripotent Stem Cells possible. Induce Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) are the ADULT stem cells that mimic the ability of embryonic stem cells to become any cell in the body without any of the controversy of embryonic stem cells. – DG

Article Date: 03 Mar 2009 – 6:00 PST

Scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have identified a protein complex important in controlling whether embryonic stem cells retain their ability to become any cell in the body – a quality called pluripotency – or instead embark on a pathway of maturation and specialization. The finding is an important advance in the quest by scientists to harness the unique abilities of embryonic stem cells to treat disease and generate replacement tissue for the body.

via 2 Stanford Studies Show Protein Complex Plays Pivotal Role In Stem Cell Development.

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