DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘organ’

INTER-SPECIES PANCREAS TRANSPLANT REVERSES DIABETES

In HEALTH AND WELLNESS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 8, 2017 at 12:33 pm

Color Rat Laboratory Cage Mammal Rat Rodent Pet

Let’s take a page out of what was not too long ago science fiction; which is now science-fact.

  • A pancreas was grown in a rat,
  • the organ was transplanted into a mouse,
  • the mouse was given immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection,
  • the diabetic mice were able to normalize their blood glucose levels for over a year.

This illustrates the long proven regenerative capacity of stem cells and the recent advancements scientists have made with anti-rejection protocols…And of course, the cool inter-species transplant of rat to mouse.

Rat-grown mouse pancreases help reverse diabetes in mice

Growing organs from one species in the body of another may one day relieve transplant shortages. Now researchers show that islets from rat-grown mouse pancreases can reverse disease when transplanted into diabetic mice.

White rat with black patches

A rat in which researchers were able to grow a mouse pancreas. Islets from the pancreases were transplanted into mice with diabetes. The transplants helped control the mice’s blood sugar levels.
Courtesy of the Nakauchi lab

 Mouse pancreases grown in rats generate functional, insulin-producing cells that can reverse diabetes when transplanted into mice with the disease, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Tokyo.

The recipient animals required only days of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the genetically matched organ rather than lifelong treatment.

The success of the interspecies transplantation suggests that a similar technique could one day be used to generate matched, transplantable human organs in large animals like pigs and sheep.

To conduct the work, the researchers implanted mouse pluripotent stem cells, which can become any cell in the body, into early rat embryos. The rats had been genetically engineered to be unable to develop their own pancreas and were thus forced to rely on the mouse cells for the development of the organ.

Once the rats were born and grown, the researchers transplanted the insulin-producing cells, which cluster together in groups called islets, from the rat-grown pancreases into mice genetically matched to the stem cells that formed the pancreas. These mice had been given a drug to cause them to develop diabetes.

“We found that the diabetic mice were able to normalize their blood glucose levels for over a year after the transplantation of as few as 100 of these islets,” said Hiromitsu Nakauchi, MD, PhD, a professor of genetics at Stanford. “Furthermore, the recipient animals only needed treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for five days after transplantation, rather than the ongoing immunosuppression that would be needed for unmatched organs.”

Nakauchi, who is a member of Stanford’s Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, is the senior author of a paper describing the findings, which was published online Jan. 25 in Nature. Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, PhD, an associate professor of stem cell therapy, and researcher Hideyuki Sato, both from the University of Tokyo, share lead authorship of the paper.

Hiro Nakauchi

Although much research remains to be done, scientist Hiromitsu Nakauchi and his colleagues believe their work with rodents shows that a similar technique could one day be used to generate matched, transplantable human organs in large animals like pigs and sheep.
Wing Hon Films

Organs in short supply

About 76,000 people in the United States are currently waiting for an organ transplant, but organs are in short supply. Generating genetically matched human organs in large animals could relieve the shortage and release transplant recipients from the need for lifelong immunosuppression, the researchers say.

People suffering from diabetes could also benefit from this approach. Diabetes is a life-threating metabolic disease in which a person or animal is unable to either make or respond appropriately to insulin, which is a hormone that allows the body to regulate its blood sugar levels in response to meals or fasting. The disease affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. The transplantation of functional islets from healthy pancreases has been shown to be a potentially viable option to treat diabetes in humans, as long as rejection can be avoided.

The researchers’ current findings come on the heels of a previous study in which they grew rat pancreases in mice. Although the organs appeared functional, they were the size of a normal mouse pancreas rather than a larger rat pancreas. As a result, there were not enough functional islets in the smaller organs to successfully reverse diabetes in rats.

Mouse pancreases grown in rats

In the current study, the researchers swapped the animals’ roles, growing mouse pancreases in rats engineered to lack the organ. The pancreases were able to successfully regulate the rats’ blood sugar levels, indicating they were functioning normally. Rejection of the mouse pancreases by the rats’ immune systems was uncommon because the mouse cells were injected into the rat embryo prior to the development of immune tolerance, which is a period during development when the immune system is trained to recognize its own tissues as “self.” Most of these mouse-derived organs grew to the size expected for a rat pancreas, rendering enough individual islets for transplantation

Next, the researchers transplanted 100 islets from the rat-grown pancreases back into mice with diabetes. Subsequently, these mice were able to successfully control their blood sugar levels for over 370 days, the researchers found.

Because the transplanted islets contained some contaminating rat cells, the researchers treated each recipient mouse with immunosuppressive drugs for five days after transplant. After this time, however, the immunosuppression was stopped.

After about 10 months, the researchers removed the islets from a subset of the mice for inspection.

“We examined them closely for the presence of any rat cells, but we found that the mouse’s immune system had eliminated them,” said Nakauchi. “This is very promising for our hope to transplant human organs grown in animals because it suggests that any contaminating animal cells could be eliminated by the patient’s immune system after transplant.”

Importantly, the researchers also did not see any signs of tumor formation or other abnormalities caused by the pluripotent mouse stem cells that formed the islets. Tumor formation is often a concern when pluripotent stem cells are used in an animal due to the cells’ remarkable developmental plasticity. The researchers believe the lack of any signs of cancer is likely due to the fact that the mouse pluripotent stem cells were guided to generate a pancreas within the developing rat embryo, rather than coaxed to develop into islet cells in the laboratory. The researchers are working on similar animal-to-animal experiments to generate kidneys, livers and lungs.

Although the findings provide proof-of-principle for future work, much research remains to be done. Ethical considerations are also important when human stem cells are transplanted into animal embryos, the researchers acknowledge.

The research was funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, a KAKENHI grant, the Japan Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Network and the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

Stanford’s Department of Genetics also supported the work.

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STEM CELLS HIT MAIN STREAM MEDIA!

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on June 27, 2014 at 9:03 pm

STEM CELLS HIT MAIN STREAM MEDIA! 
On NBC tonight at 8pm EST!

The first stem cell generated windpipe was implanted in 2008.
Six long years later, the technique has been improved significantly and has hit main stream media. 

Image

“Macchiarini’s team began by collecting stem cells from Beyene’s bone marrow. Those cells were mixed with special growth factors and then poured onto a scaffold made from plastic — in fact, the very same plastic that is used to make soda bottles — which had been made to mimic the shape of a real windpipe.  In just a matter of days, the scaffold began to transform into an actual functioning windpipe.”

Some attack those pushing the boundaries, citing that the surgery is experimental and unproven.  But the Dr can’t stand by as patients die when he can do something about it and can’t ignore their pleas for a chance at the hope of recovery.  This is cutting edge of medicine and there are thousands of clinical trials and studies and 10s to 100s of thousands of patients treated, most outside of the US.  There are no guarantees.  There are always risks, even with rigorously tested pharmaceutical drugs and treatment protocols that have been used for decades.  But for chronic and terminal patients who are given no chance for recovery, experimental sounds like a pretty great option.

Historically, new treatments have always been met with resistance.

“Tom Starzl, when he started doing liver transplants, the first seven, eight, nine patients all died. Everybody said he was nuts, OK? Christian Barnard, when he started doing heart transplants, everyone threw rocks at him. This is how we’re going to treat diseases in the future and this is the start of it.”

Anything which pushes the envelop of contemporary knowledge will be rejected by those clinging to traditional concepts…but without pioneering doctors and even more pioneering patients, willing to take risks, medical protocols can not advance.  I salute the doctor and the patients who are the ground-breaking pioneers in the new land of regenerative medicine.  And what can their mutual risk do for the patient and millions to follow?

“One of Macchiarini’s most promising success stories is Claudia Castillo, a Spanish mother who is doing so well six years after her transplant that an increasing number of Macchiarini’s colleagues are beginning to see him in a new light.”

Thank you!

To watch the video and learn more:

http://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/leap-faith-desperate-patients-look-lab-grown-organs-n142036

DISCOVERY OF PRIMARY CILIA IN STEM CELLS

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on January 7, 2013 at 10:40 am
“…since stem cells are now being more routinely used for regenerative medicine such as repair of severed spinal cord (Lu et al. 2012), it behooves us to better learn the molecular mechanisms that keeps these invaluable cells in an undifferentiated state so that we can harness their full therapeutic potential.”
Discovery of Primary Cilia in Stem Cells

Author: Aashir Awan, PhD

The primary cilium is organelle that has garnered much attention in the field of cell biology during the last 15 years. It is a slender, solitary hair-like organelle that extends 5-10 uM from each mammalian cell (in the G0 cell cycle state) that is microtubule-based (9 outer doublets arranged in a circular fashion) and dependent on a process called Intraflagellar Transport (IFT). IFT is the bidirectional movement of motors (kinesin-2 in the anterograde and dynein-2 in the retrograde direction) responsible for the assembly and maintenance of the cilium (Pedersen et al., 2006).

Until this time, it had been labeled a ‘vestigial’ organelle not worthy of research. Yet, a breakthrough into the sensory role of the primary cilium came in 2000 based on Dr. Rosenbaum’s research on Chlamydomonas and the motile cilium or flagella. Along with Dr. George Whitman’s group, they were able to show the importance of Tg737 (IFT88) protein to the pathology of polycystic kidney disease in mouse (Pazour et al., 2000). Since then, research into the primary cilium has exploded and has been linked to diverse pathologies (collectively known as ciliopathies) such as

  • retinitis pigmentosa,
  • hydrocephaly,
  • situs inversus,
  • ovarian and pancreatic cancers among others (Nielsen et al., 2008; Edberg et al., 2012). Also, various
  • signal transduction pathways have been found to be coordinated by the primary cilia such as hedgehog, wnt, PDGF among others (Veland et al., 2008).

Thus, in 2006, the Christensen lab at the University of Copenhagen (Denmark) with the collaboration of Dr. Peter Satir’s group at Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Bronx, NY) began to investigate whether the human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) possess primary cilium and then to begin preliminary molecular dissections of the role that this organelle could play in the proliferation and differentiation profiles of these pluripotent cells. The Albert Einstein group, due to NIH restrictions, had to work with two federally-sanctioned cell lines. Working with the Laboratory of Reproductive Biology at RigsHospital, the Danish side had access to in-house derived stem cell lines from discarded blastocysts. The advantage for the Danish side was obvious since these newer cell lines hadn’t undergone as many passages as the NIH cell lines and were thus more robust. To begin preliminary characterizations of these lines, some basic hallmarks of hESCs (Bernhardt et al., 2012) had to be localized to the nucleus such as the transcription factor (TF) Oct4 (Fig. 1).

In addition, a single primary cilium can be seen denoted by the acetylated tubulin staining emanating from each cell in the micrographs. Also, the base of the cilium is marked by the presence of pericentrin and centrin which demarcate the centriole.

Fig1 Fig. 1 Primary cilia stained with anti-acetylated tubulin (tb, red) are indicated by arrows and undifferentiated stem cells are identified by nuclear colocalization of OCT-4 (green) and DAPI (dark blue) in the merged image (light blue). A primary cilium (tb, red, arrow) in undifferentiated hESCs emerges from one of the centrioles (asterisks) marked with anti-centrin (centrin, green). Inset shows anti-pericentrin localization to base of cilia (Pctn, green).

Together, the three labs were the first to discover primary cilia in stem cells while other groups have since then confirmed these findings (Kiprilov et  al. 2008; Han et al. 2008). Attention was then to characterize different signal transduction pathways in the stem cell cilium. Since the hedgehog pathway has been shown to be important for differentiation and proliferation (Cerdan and Bhatia, 2012), the groups characterized this signal pathway in these cells using immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and qPCR techniques. One particularly interesting experiment to show that the hedgehog pathway was functional in these cells was to add the hedgehog agonist, SAG (Smoothened agonist), and then to isolate the cells for immunofluorescence at different times.

Gradually, one can see the appearance of the smoothened protein into the cilium as indicated by increasing intensity of the immunofluorescence staining. Conversely, patched levels in the cilium, decreased. This is a hallmark of hedgehog activation (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2 copiaFig. 2 Immunofluorescence micrographs of hESC showing smoothened (green), acetylated tubulin (red) and DAPI (blue). The micrographs from left to right represents SAG treatments at t = 0, 1 and 4 hours.

However, an additional interesting observation was made concerning these stem cells. An important characteristic for stem cells is the presence of certain transcription factors which render these cells in the pluripotent or undifferentiated state. These include Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog whose localization had been observed in the nucleus as expected for other TFs.

However, the Danish groups curiously found a subpopulation of stem cells where these TFs were additionally localized to the primary cilium (Fig. 3). This had never been observed or investigated before.  Additionally, proper negative controls were  carried out to exclude this phenomenon from being an artifact (e.g. bleed through).
Fig. 3 copia Fig. 3 Stem cell markers (Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4) localizing to the nucleus and the primary cilia (arrows) of hESC line LRB003. This and the previous figure show shifted overlay images whereby the green and red channels have been slightly shifted so that the red channel doesn’t swamp out the intensity of the green channels.

Thus, it raises an intriguing possibility that perhaps the primary cilia plays a previously uncharacterized role in the differentiation/proliferation state of the hESCs via possible modifications of these TFs perhaps analogous to the processing of the Gli transcription factors (Hui and Angers, 2011). Another curious observation is that the subpopulation of cells whose primary cilia are positive for these TFs always occur in clusters which might hint at its mechanistic explanation.  In conclusion, since stem cells are now being more routinely used for regenerative medicine such as repair of severed spinal cord (Lu et al. 2012), it behooves us to better learn the molecular mechanisms that keeps these invaluable cells in an undifferentiated state so that we can harness their full therapeutic potential.

REFERENCES

Awan A, Oliveri RS, Jensen PL, Christensen ST, Andersen CY. 2010 Immunoflourescence and mRNA analysis of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown under feeder-free conditions. Methods Mol Biol. 584:195-210.

Bernhardt M, Galach M, Novak D, Utikal J. 2012 Mediators of induced pluripotency and their role in cancer cells – current scientific knowledge and future perspectives. Biotechnol J. 7:810-821.

Cerdan C, Bhatia M. 2010 Novel roles for Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog in hematopoesis derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Int J Dev Biol. 54:955-963.

Han YG, Spassky N, Romaguera-Ros M, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Aguilar A, Schneider-Maunoury S, Alvarez-Buylla A. 2008 Hedgehog signaling and primary cilia are required for the formation of adult neural stem cells.Nat Neurosci. 11:277-284.

Hui CC, Angers S. 2011 Gli proteins in development and disease. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 27:513-537.

Kiprilov EN, Awan A, Desprat R, Velho M, Clement CA, Byskov AG, Andersen CY, Satir P, Bouhassira EE, Christensen ST, Hirsch RE 2008 Human embryonic stem cells in culture possess primary cilia with hedgehog signaling machinery. J Cell Biol. 2008 180:897-904.

Lu P, Wang Y, Graham L, McHale K, Gao M, Wu D, Brock J, Blesch A, Rosenzweig ES, Havton LA, Zheng B, Conner JM, Marsala M, Tuszynski MH. 2012 Long-distance growth and connectivity of neural stem cells after severe spinal cord injury. Cell 150:1264-73.

Nielsen SK, Møllgård K, Clement CA, Veland IR, Awan A, Yoder BK, Novak I, Christensen ST. 2008 Characterization of primary cilia and Hedgehog signaling during development of the human pancreas and in human pancreatic duct cancer cell lines. Dev Dyn. 237:2039-52.

Pazour GJ, Dickert BL, Vucica Y, Seeley ES, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Cole DG. 2000 Chlamydomonas IFT88 and its mouse homologue, polycystic kidney disease gene tg737, are required for assembly of cilia and flagella. J Cell Biol 151: 709-18.

Pedersen LB, Veland IR, Schrøder JM, Christensen ST. 2008 Assembly of primary cilia. Dev Dyn. 237:1993-2006.

Veland IR, Awan A, Pedersen LB, Yoder BK, Christensen ST. 2009 Primary cilia and signaling pathways in mammalian development, health and disease. Nephron Physiol. 111: 39-53.

Discovery of Primary Cilia in Stem Cells.

//

Court won’t reconsider bone marrow payments ruling

In BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS on March 31, 2012 at 3:38 am

Previously, you could not compensate someone for a bone marrow donation“donating bone marrow was classified the same as donating a kidney or any other organ, and payments were forbidden, punished by jail time.”

Now, bone marrow donation is so simple, it no longer resembles organ donation“the process of donating bone marrow [is] nearly identical to giving blood plasma and doesn’t amount to an organ transplant.”

So, you can get paid for a bone marrow donation“bone marrow donors [can] be paid for their donations like blood donors.”

Many believe this is a very positive move and will encourage more donations.

bone marrow is FULL of stem cells 🙂

https://i2.wp.com/www.topnews.in/health/files/bone-marrow.jpg

Court won’t reconsider bone marrow payments ruling

Posted: 6:48pm on Mar 27, 2012; Modified: 9:27pm on Mar 27, 2012

A federal appeals court on Tuesday declined to reconsider a ruling that allows bone marrow donors to be paid for their donations like blood donors.

In December, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals shook up the organ transplant community when it overturned the criminality of paying bone marrow donors. Previously, donating bone marrow was classified the same as donating a kidney or any other organ, and payments were forbidden, punished by jail time.

But the court said a technological breakthrough makes the process of donating bone marrow nearly identical to giving blood plasma and doesn’t amount to an organ transplant.

On Tuesday, the 9th Circuit declined the Obama administration’s request to reconsider the ruling. Several organizations and activisits in the organ-donation community have urged the administration to fight the ruling.

The administration now has 90 days to petition the U.S. Supreme Court.

Department of Justice spokesman Charles Miller said the administration is reviewing its options.

The nonprofit patient advocacy group Institute for Justice called the original ruling a “major national shift in bone marrow donation policy” and said payments will encourage more donations.

SAN FRANCISCO: Court won’t reconsider bone marrow payments ruling | Health | Macon.com.

 

 

NEW TREATMENT OPTIONS! NEW TREATMENT PRICES!

In BEST OF THE BEST on October 4, 2011 at 5:37 pm
NEW TREATMENT OPTIONS! NEW TREATMENT PRICES!The Doctor with perhaps the most experience in the world with Stem Cell Treatments for HEART DISEASE (and many others) is now taking on patients! He also has extensive experience with the following:

  • Heart,
  • Pancreas,
  • Lungs,
  • Kidneys,
  • Brain (various conditions, mainly stroke),
  • Spinal Cord,
  • Multiple Sclerosis,
  • Liver
  • and other neurological degenerative conditions.

Your treatment fee has been negotiated down to around $25,000 (the specific cost may vary depending on your specific requirements but it will not exceed $26,000). This is a ~$10,000 reduction on standard treatment costs and I hope this helps to move stem cell treatments out of your dreams and into your reality!

If the patient wants an additional treatment for a different condition, they can opt to have it at the same time for approximately half of the cost of the first treatment!The ~$25,000 fee includes the patient’s treatment, accommodations for two people and local travel via limo for two people! The only additional cost is for air fare and my associate can also assist you with significant price reductions on your travel plans.

Contact me immediately and I will assist you in scheduling your appointment and getting more information on your specific condition and treatments. Email me at dsgrano@gmail.com

Organ Regeneration from Stem Cells

In ALL ARTICLES on September 14, 2011 at 5:09 pm

The Big Idea:

Organ Regeneration

Photo: Growing an ear

Miracle Grow

In the future people who need a body part may get their own back—regrown in the lab from their own cells.

By Josie Glausiusz
Photograph by Rebecca Hale, NGM Staff

Above: The synthetic scaffold of an ear sits bathed in cartilage-producing cells, part of an effort to grow new ears for wounded soldiers.

More than 100,000 people are waiting for organ transplants in the U.S. alone; every day 18 of them die. Not only are healthy organs in short supply, but donor and patient also have to be closely matched, or the patient’s immune system may reject the transplant. A new kind of solution is incubating in medical labs: “bioartificial” organs grown from the patient’s own cells. Thirty people have received lab-grown bladders already, and other engineered organs are in the pipeline.

The bladder technique was developed by Anthony Atala of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Researchers take healthy cells from a patient’s diseased bladder, cause them to multiply profusely in petri dishes, then apply them to a balloon-shaped scaffold made partly of collagen, the protein found in cartilage. Muscle cells go on the outside, urothelial cells (which line the urinary tract) on the inside. “It’s like baking a layer cake,” says Atala. “You’re layering the cells one layer at a time, spreading these toppings.” The bladder-to-be is then incubated at body temperature until the cells form functioning tissue. The whole process takes six to eight weeks.

Solid organs with lots of blood vessels, such as kidneys or livers, are harder to grow than hollow ones like bladders. But Atala’s group—which is working on 22 organs and tissues, including ears—recently made a functioning piece of human liver. One tool they use is similar to an ink-jet printer; it “prints” different types of cells and the organ scaffold one layer at a time.

Other labs are also racing to make bioartificial organs. A jawbone has sprouted at Columbia University and a lung at Yale. At the University of Minnesota, Doris Taylor has fabricated a beating rat heart, growing cells from one rat on a scaffold she made from the heart of another by washing off its own cells. And at the University of Michigan, H. David Humes has created an artificial kidney from cells seeded onto a synthetic scaffold. The cell-phone-size kidney has passed tests on sheep—it’s not yet implantable, but it’s wearable, unlike a dialysis machine, and it does more than filter toxins from blood. It also makes hormones and performs other kidney functions.

Growing a copy of a patient’s organ may not always be possible—for instance, when the original is too damaged by cancer. One solution for such patients might be a stem cell bank. Atala’s team has shown that stem cells can be collected without harming human embryos (and thus without political controversy) from amniotic fluid in the womb. The researchers have coaxed those cells into becoming heart, liver, and other organ cells. A bank of 100,000 stem cell samples, Atala says, would have enough genetic variety to match nearly any patient. Surgeons would order organs grown as needed instead of waiting for cadavers that might not be a perfect match. “There are few things as devastating for a surgeon as knowing you have to replace the tissue and you’re doing something that’s not ideal,” says Atala, a urologic surgeon himself. “Wouldn’t it be great if they had their own organ?” Great for the patient especially, he means.

Reuters Health Update

In ALL ARTICLES on April 25, 2011 at 11:13 am
Pediatricians call for stricter laws for chemicals
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – The U.S. is not doing enough to protect kids from exposure to potentially dangerous chemicals, pediatricians said in a new statement released today. | Full Article
China considers financial incentives to promote organ donation
April 25, 2011 04:59 AM ET
BEIJING (Reuters) – The Chinese government is considering offering financial incentives to people to voluntarily donate organs, state media said on Monday, as the country tries to tackle the problem of demand for transplants outstripping supply. | Full Article
Bullying sends kids to nurse for more than injury
April 25, 2011 01:28 AM ET
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – Both bullies and their victims take more trips to the nurse’s office than other students – but not just for the obvious reasons. | Full Article
US FDA sees safety issue with Merck hepatitis drug
April 25, 2011 08:57 AM ET
WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. drug reviewers have raised questions about safety issues with an experimental Merck & Co hepatitis drug, including anemia and reports of psychiatric problems, documents released on Monday said. | Full Article
Diabetic completes first-ever polar flight of its kind
April 23, 2011 08:09 PM ET
ANCHORAGE, Alaska (Reuters) – Former British Royal Air Force pilot Douglas Cairns succeeded in flying his light plane to the North Pole and landing it there this week, overcoming strong headwinds, the failure of his satellite-based navigation system and his diabetes to earn a place in aviation record books. | Full Article

Stem Cells Help Grow Live Human Heart – Health News – redOrbit

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 6, 2011 at 2:26 pm

Stem Cells Help Grow Live Human Heart

Posted on: Tuesday, 5 April 2011, 07:19 CDT

Scientists are growing human hearts in laboratories with the help of stem cells, giving hope to millions of cardiac patients around the world.

Researchers at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis believe the lab-developed organs could start beating in a matter of weeks. It’s a huge step towards the first ‘grow-your-own’ heart, and could lead the way into producing other organs such as livers, lungs and kidneys.

The researchers created the organs by removing muscle cells from donor organs. They injected stem cells which multiplied and grew around the structure, eventually forming healthy heart cells.

“The hearts are growing, and we hope they will show signs of beating within the next weeks,” said Dr. Doris Taylor, an expert in regenerative medicine at U of M, according to the Daily Mail.

“There are many hurdles to overcome to generate a fully functioning heart, but my prediction is that it may one day be possible to grow entire organs for transplant,” she added.

The artificial organs have been created using immature ‘master cells’ which have the ability to turn into other types of tissue. This latest experiment follows a series of successful experiments researchers have accomplished in the goal to create artificial organs for potential use in transplants.

Taylor and colleagues have already created beating rat and pig hearts. Although the organs were not strong enough to use in animals, the research proved to be a major step in the goal of producing tailor-made organs.

The researchers reported their latest study results at the American College of Cardiology’s annual conference in New Orleans.

The team used human hearts taken from dead bodies to create the lab-grown hearts. They stripped the cells from the dead hearts using a powerful detergent, leaving ‘ghost heart’ scaffolds made from collagen protein.

The researchers injected the ghost hearts with millions of stem cells — extracted from patients — and supplied with nutrients. The stem cells recognized the collagen heart structure and began to turn it into heart muscle cells. Although the hearts have yet to begin beating, the team believes that when they do, they could be strong enough to pump blood.

However, there are many obstacles obstructing scientists from creating working hearts.

One of the biggest obstacles is getting enough oxygen to the heart through a complex network of blood vessels. Scientists will also need to ensure that the heart cells beat normally.

“We are a long way off creating a heart for transplant, but we think we’ve opened a door to building any organ for human transplant,” Taylor told the Sunday Times.

Stem Cells Help Grow Live Human Heart – Health News – redOrbit.

“Dwarf’s (lung) standing on the shoulders of giant’s (heart)”

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on July 15, 2010 at 1:12 pm

“Dwarf’s (lung) standing on the shoulders of giant’s (heart)”

(Latin: nanos gigantium humeris insidentes) is a Western metaphor meaning “One who develops future intellectual pursuits by understanding the research and works created by notable thinkers of the past.

A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant

—————————————

Lungssss, get yer lungs here!

Soon enough, organs grown from YOUR OWN stem cells will be available at a store near you.  What began as the outlandish quest of one woman in 1998…one woman who swam against a huge tidal flow of scientists and doctors telling her she was out of her mind…is now, almost 20 years later, hitting mainstream science, academia and media.

Who is this woman and what did she do?  You’ve probably never heard of her (unless you’ve read my book – “Super Stemmys) but she will most likely go down in history as the mother of 21st century patient specific organ regeneration. Organs, btw, that are both rejection free and require no immunosuppressive drugs. In other words…

YOUR OWN organs grown from YOUR OWN stem cells.”

Here’s how it all started…

1998 – Dr Doris Taylor takes stem cells from the thigh of a rabbit, injects them into scar tissue in the animal’s heart and repairs the damaged muscle.  Published in Nature Medicine.

2002 – Dr Taylor herself witnessed, in Rotterdam, the first patient in the world to get stem cells injected through a catheter into the wall of the heart. Encouraging results began to come in—improved ejection fractions, reduced diameters, thicker muscle tissue.

2005 – Advancements continue as Dr Taylor rinses rat hearts with detergent until the cells washed away and all that remained was a skeleton of tissue translucent as wax paper. She then injected the scaffold with fresh heart (stem) cells from newborn rats.  Four days later, “We could see these little areas that were beginning to beat.  By eight days, we could see the whole heart beating.”  The experiment, reported in the journal Nature Medicine, marked the first time scientists had created a functioning heart in the lab from biological tissue.

Read it again! Doctor Doris Taylor grew a new heart in a lab 5 YEARS AGO!

So congrats to the docs at Harvard Medical School for growing a lung…just don’t forget that Dr Doris Taylor’s heart is the giant on whose shoulders your lung is standing. -dg

—————————————————————————

Stem cell scientists unveil lab-grown lung – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

By Kellie Lazzaro

Updated Wed Jul 14, 2010 11:04am AEST

Harvard doctors used stem cells to generate the organ. (Supplied: Harald C Ott)

A decellularized rat lung. Harvard doctors have used stem cells to generate the artificial organ

Artificial lung: a recellularized lung in a bioreactor during organ culture (Supplied: Harald C Ott)

Artificial lung: a recellularized lung in a bioreactor during organ culture (Supplied: Harald C Ott)

First breath: the recellularized rat lung takes in air at the end of the organ culture period (Supplied: Harald C Ott )

American researchers have provided some hope for the hundreds of Australians languishing on organ-transplant waiting lists.

Doctors at the Harvard Medical School have used stem cells to construct a miniature lung, which functioned for up to six hours when transplanted into a rat.

Lung transplant specialists say the research is a significant breakthrough in efforts to develop ways to expand the organ donor pool.

For the 50 million people worldwide with end-stage lung disease, the only definitive treatment is a transplant.

Kate Hayne, 66, waited four years for a double lung transplant after she was diagnosed with bronchiectasis.

“You’re waiting for the phone to ring and it doesn’t ring and you’re life is getting narrower and narrower because you can do less and less and less,” she said.

“You’re basically waiting to die … and a lot of people do die.

“I met some lovely people who didn’t survive the wait.”

It is hoped the research by the Harvard Medical School in Boston will go some way towards improving the chances of survival.

Dr Harald Ott and his team removed the cells from a rat lung and rebuilt the organ blueprint using human umbilical and foetal rat cells.

Within about a week that lung began exchanging oxygen like normal lungs and was transplanted into a rat where it continued functioning for six hours.

“There’s a lot of work to do in up scaling this now from rats to human-sized organs,” he said.

“But I think that we are looking at a situation where over the next five to 10 years we might be seeing more regenerated products to actually hit the patients’ side.”

Professor Allan Glanville, the medical head of lung transplantation at Sydney’s St Vincent’s Hospital, says specialists in Australia are watching with interest.

“This is extraordinarily exciting work and it lays the groundwork for the beginning of the development of a inartificial lung that might benefit so many people,” he said.

Dr Michael Musk, who heads the West Australian Lung Transplant program, agrees the research is a huge step forward.

“It hopefully means we don’t need the degree or amount of immunosuppression required, which is associated with a lot of side effects,” he said.

“It would not only improve donor pool, but also improve the quality of life.”

The research is published today in the journal Nature Medicine (see Technical Report abstract below).

via Stem cell scientists unveil lab-grown lung – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation).


Nature Medicine
Published online: 13 July 2010 | doi:10.1038/nm.2193

Regeneration and orthotopic transplantation of a bioartificial lung

Harald C Ott1, Ben Clippinger1, Claudius Conrad1, Christian Schuetz1, Irina Pomerantseva1, Laertis Ikonomou2, Darrell Kotton2 & Joseph P Vacanti1


About 2,000 patients now await a donor lung in the United States. Worldwide, 50 million individuals are living with end-stage lung disease. Creation of a bioartificial lung requires engineering of viable lung architecture enabling ventilation, perfusion and gas exchange. We decellularized lungs by detergent perfusion and yielded scaffolds with acellular vasculature, airways and alveoli. To regenerate gas exchange tissue, we seeded scaffolds with epithelial and endothelial cells. To establish function, we perfused and ventilated cell-seeded constructs in a bioreactor simulating the physiologic environment of developing lung. By day 5, constructs could be perfused with blood and ventilated using physiologic pressures, and they generated gas exchange comparable to that of isolated native lungs. To show in vivo function, we transplanted regenerated lungs into orthotopic position. After transplantation, constructs were perfused by the recipient’s circulation and ventilated by means of the recipient’s airway and respiratory muscles, and they provided gas exchange in vivo for up to 6 h after extubation.


To read this technical report in full you will need to login or make a payment at Nature Medicine.  – http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.2193.html

Banks of off-the-shelf body parts could be created for transplants: researchers – Telegraph

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on July 15, 2010 at 10:04 am

Banks of off-the-shelf body parts could be created for transplants: researchers

Off-the-shelf body parts could soon be available for surgeons to use to repair injuries or patch-up worn out organs, researchers claim.

By Rebecca Smith, Medical Editor

Published: 7:50AM BST 14 Jul 2010

Photo: ALAMY

Scientists are perfecting ways of creating bare ‘scaffold’ building blocks of body parts which can then be used as a frame for a patient’s own cells to grow around.

The technique involves taking a piece of dead donor or animal body part and removing all the soft tissue so just the bare structure is left. Stem cells from the patient can then be placed on the frame and will regrow into a new body part for them.

The technique has already been successful in creating a new section of windpipe for patients who have suffered injury or disease and it is hoped it can be used for a wider set of organs.

Experts said the scaffold for the most commonly used parts could be created in advance and stored ready for use when needed.

Prof John Fisher from The University of Leeds spoke at a stem cell conference of the potential to create banks of scaffolds of all kinds of body tissue so surgeons can then finish them off with a covering of tissue grown from the patient before they are implanted.

He told the UK National Stem Cell Network Annual Science Meeting in Nottingham of work he and his colleague Prof Eileen Ingham have been working on to create the scaffolds from dead donors or animals.

So far, patches to cover a hole or weakening in a blood vessel, knee cartilage and tendons have been created.

The advantage of the method is that the patient will not reject the transplanted tissue as foreign because the scaffold is stripped of all material that can trigger rejection and the soft tissue is grown from their own stem cells.

It means patients can avoid powerful immunosurpressant drugs which shorten life expectancy and can increase the risk of cancer.

Scaffolds derived from human donor tissue are being developed by the NHS Blood & Transplant Tissue Services, while scaffolds developed from animal tissues are being developed and commercialised by Tissue Regenix Group PLC.

Prof Fisher said: “If you take a natural tissue and strip off all of the donor’s cells you’re left with a biological scaffold made mostly of a protein called collagen, which is compatible with the patient receiving the scaffold.

“That scaffold is good from an engineering perspective because it’s strong, flexible and retains the properties of the natural tissue. It also has the appropriate shape and size, and from a biological perspective is good because a patient’s cells can bind to it and repopulate it easily.”

The transplants are also expected to last longer than those in use currently because the technique overcomes the problem of rejection.

Prof Fisher said chemically treated and strengthened prosthetic heart valves from pigs, for example, have been in used in human transplants for more than a decade, but the chemical process which stops them from being rejected by the patient’s immune system also leaves them lifeless so they degrade over time and need to be replaced.

He added:”These new biological scaffolds will provide off-the-shelf tissues for surgeons for repairing blood vessels after surgery for blocked arteries, for repairing knee cartilage after sporting injuries and cartilage tears, for repairing torn ligaments or tendons and for heart valve repair or replacement.”

Other more complex structures like a voicebox could be replaced in the same way but the demand for such specialist transplants is more limited and so it is unlikely bio-tech companies would make scaffolds for these in advance and store them.

via Banks of off-the-shelf body parts could be created for transplants: researchers – Telegraph.

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