DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘mouse’

INTER-SPECIES PANCREAS TRANSPLANT REVERSES DIABETES

In HEALTH AND WELLNESS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 8, 2017 at 12:33 pm

Color Rat Laboratory Cage Mammal Rat Rodent Pet

Let’s take a page out of what was not too long ago science fiction; which is now science-fact.

  • A pancreas was grown in a rat,
  • the organ was transplanted into a mouse,
  • the mouse was given immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection,
  • the diabetic mice were able to normalize their blood glucose levels for over a year.

This illustrates the long proven regenerative capacity of stem cells and the recent advancements scientists have made with anti-rejection protocols…And of course, the cool inter-species transplant of rat to mouse.

Rat-grown mouse pancreases help reverse diabetes in mice

Growing organs from one species in the body of another may one day relieve transplant shortages. Now researchers show that islets from rat-grown mouse pancreases can reverse disease when transplanted into diabetic mice.

White rat with black patches

A rat in which researchers were able to grow a mouse pancreas. Islets from the pancreases were transplanted into mice with diabetes. The transplants helped control the mice’s blood sugar levels.
Courtesy of the Nakauchi lab

 Mouse pancreases grown in rats generate functional, insulin-producing cells that can reverse diabetes when transplanted into mice with the disease, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Tokyo.

The recipient animals required only days of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the genetically matched organ rather than lifelong treatment.

The success of the interspecies transplantation suggests that a similar technique could one day be used to generate matched, transplantable human organs in large animals like pigs and sheep.

To conduct the work, the researchers implanted mouse pluripotent stem cells, which can become any cell in the body, into early rat embryos. The rats had been genetically engineered to be unable to develop their own pancreas and were thus forced to rely on the mouse cells for the development of the organ.

Once the rats were born and grown, the researchers transplanted the insulin-producing cells, which cluster together in groups called islets, from the rat-grown pancreases into mice genetically matched to the stem cells that formed the pancreas. These mice had been given a drug to cause them to develop diabetes.

“We found that the diabetic mice were able to normalize their blood glucose levels for over a year after the transplantation of as few as 100 of these islets,” said Hiromitsu Nakauchi, MD, PhD, a professor of genetics at Stanford. “Furthermore, the recipient animals only needed treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for five days after transplantation, rather than the ongoing immunosuppression that would be needed for unmatched organs.”

Nakauchi, who is a member of Stanford’s Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, is the senior author of a paper describing the findings, which was published online Jan. 25 in Nature. Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, PhD, an associate professor of stem cell therapy, and researcher Hideyuki Sato, both from the University of Tokyo, share lead authorship of the paper.

Hiro Nakauchi

Although much research remains to be done, scientist Hiromitsu Nakauchi and his colleagues believe their work with rodents shows that a similar technique could one day be used to generate matched, transplantable human organs in large animals like pigs and sheep.
Wing Hon Films

Organs in short supply

About 76,000 people in the United States are currently waiting for an organ transplant, but organs are in short supply. Generating genetically matched human organs in large animals could relieve the shortage and release transplant recipients from the need for lifelong immunosuppression, the researchers say.

People suffering from diabetes could also benefit from this approach. Diabetes is a life-threating metabolic disease in which a person or animal is unable to either make or respond appropriately to insulin, which is a hormone that allows the body to regulate its blood sugar levels in response to meals or fasting. The disease affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. The transplantation of functional islets from healthy pancreases has been shown to be a potentially viable option to treat diabetes in humans, as long as rejection can be avoided.

The researchers’ current findings come on the heels of a previous study in which they grew rat pancreases in mice. Although the organs appeared functional, they were the size of a normal mouse pancreas rather than a larger rat pancreas. As a result, there were not enough functional islets in the smaller organs to successfully reverse diabetes in rats.

Mouse pancreases grown in rats

In the current study, the researchers swapped the animals’ roles, growing mouse pancreases in rats engineered to lack the organ. The pancreases were able to successfully regulate the rats’ blood sugar levels, indicating they were functioning normally. Rejection of the mouse pancreases by the rats’ immune systems was uncommon because the mouse cells were injected into the rat embryo prior to the development of immune tolerance, which is a period during development when the immune system is trained to recognize its own tissues as “self.” Most of these mouse-derived organs grew to the size expected for a rat pancreas, rendering enough individual islets for transplantation

Next, the researchers transplanted 100 islets from the rat-grown pancreases back into mice with diabetes. Subsequently, these mice were able to successfully control their blood sugar levels for over 370 days, the researchers found.

Because the transplanted islets contained some contaminating rat cells, the researchers treated each recipient mouse with immunosuppressive drugs for five days after transplant. After this time, however, the immunosuppression was stopped.

After about 10 months, the researchers removed the islets from a subset of the mice for inspection.

“We examined them closely for the presence of any rat cells, but we found that the mouse’s immune system had eliminated them,” said Nakauchi. “This is very promising for our hope to transplant human organs grown in animals because it suggests that any contaminating animal cells could be eliminated by the patient’s immune system after transplant.”

Importantly, the researchers also did not see any signs of tumor formation or other abnormalities caused by the pluripotent mouse stem cells that formed the islets. Tumor formation is often a concern when pluripotent stem cells are used in an animal due to the cells’ remarkable developmental plasticity. The researchers believe the lack of any signs of cancer is likely due to the fact that the mouse pluripotent stem cells were guided to generate a pancreas within the developing rat embryo, rather than coaxed to develop into islet cells in the laboratory. The researchers are working on similar animal-to-animal experiments to generate kidneys, livers and lungs.

Although the findings provide proof-of-principle for future work, much research remains to be done. Ethical considerations are also important when human stem cells are transplanted into animal embryos, the researchers acknowledge.

The research was funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, a KAKENHI grant, the Japan Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Network and the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

Stanford’s Department of Genetics also supported the work.

PANCREATIC CANCER TUMORS DEFEATED WITH CORD BLOOD STEM CELLS

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on June 25, 2014 at 11:42 am

fight pancreatic cancer FPC_shirt


PANCREATIC CANCER TUMORS DEFEATED WITH CORD BLOOD STEM CELLS

What happens when you “genetically engineer MSCs isolated from human umbilical cord blood so that they expressed IL-15” (which fights cancer tumors) and inject them into mice with pancreatic  tumors?

  • The IL-15 migrate to the tumor
  • Other cancer and tumor fighting immune cells migrate to the tumor
  • The IL-15 attack the tumor
  • Other cancer and tumor fighting immune cells attack the tumor
  • Tumors show cell death
  • Tumor growth is significantly inhibited
  • Survival is prolonged
  • The mice immune systems are effectively vaccinated against future tumor growth

Scientists “used these souped-up cells to treat In mice afflicted with pancreatic tumors. Pancreatic cancer is an indiscriminate killer, since by the time it causes any symptoms, it is usually so advanced, that there is little to be done in order to treat it. Thus new strategies to treat this type of cancer are eagerly being sought. Systemic administration of IL-15-expressing MSCs significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The tumors of these mice showed extensive cell death, and other types of immune cells known to fight tumor cells (NK and T cells) had also accumulated around the tumor. Other experiments confirmed that the injected MSCs did indeed migrate toward the tumors and secrete IL-15 at the site of the tumors…Interestingly, those mice that were cured from the pancreatic tumors, appeared to have a kind of resistance of these tumors. Namely, when Fan and his colleagues tried to reintroduce the same tumor cells back into the cured mice, the tumor cells would not grow. Thus the engineered MSCs not only tuned the immune system against the tumor, but they effectively vaccinated the mice against it as well.”

via http://beyondthedish.wordpress.com/2014/06/23/engineered-stem-cels-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-eradicates-pancreatic-tumor/

 

 

Thanks Squeeky!

mouse-grown-from-stem-cells

ALS TREATMENT THROUGH STEM CELLS

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS - 101, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 8, 2013 at 9:00 am

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Stem Cells Treat Lou Gehrig’s Disease, In Mice

“… just to see what stem cells would do in the nervous system of a mouse who had a model of this disease, in other words, was very rapidly and very progressively losing all muscular activity, including respiration. What we found – and this was a surprise at the time – in the early days, we thought, well, stem cells should simply replace these dying motor neurons. What, in fact, we found is – and this reflected a growing sophistication of our knowledge about stem cells as well as a growing sophistication about our knowledge about ALS – that the stem cells did make a difference in these animals. It slowed the onset of the disease, its progression and prolonged survival fairly significantly. But it did it by protecting the neurons of this animal and also kind of counteracting many of the other disease processes that we started learning were going on in this disease.”

http://www.npr.org/2012/12/21/167798232/stem-cells-treat-lou-gehrigs-disease-in-mice

“Injecting stem cells into the brains of mice that recently suffered a stroke can reduce nerve cell (neuron) damage by up to 60 percent, according to new research.  But the stem cells do not simply replace damaged tissue as previously believed. Instead, the immature cells trigger adult brain cells to switch gears and block a stroke-induced immune response that causes nerve damage.”

– Taken from 2008 article:  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=can-stem-cells-block-stroke-damage

 

For all related  articles on (ALS) and the history of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (aka Lou Gehrig’s disease). Click HERE.

Experts grow whole tooth units using mouse stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on July 12, 2011 at 6:57 pm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old news, I covered this story and other similar stories as far back as August of 2009 (see below)…but they are just picking it up now so I thought I would post it.  CATCH UP!!!!  –  DSG

 

Experts grow whole tooth units using mouse stem cells – Reuters
Credit: Reuters/Dr. Takashi Tsuji/Tokyo University of Science/Handout By Tan Ee Lyn HONG KONG (Reuters) – Scientists in Japan said on Wednesday they have created teeth — complete with connective fibers and bones — by using mouse stem cells and 

Main Image

New Teeth From Stem Cells in Mice

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on August 25, 2009 at 10:11 pm

Teeth have been grown from stem cell “seeds” and planted in the mouths of mice, scientists from Tokyo University reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They hope it could lead to replacing teeth in humans, or even to rebuilding whole organs.

The Japanese scientists developed a bioengineered “tooth germ” — a seed-like package containing all the cells and instructions necessary to form a tooth…


Scientists grow fully functional tooth from stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on September 8, 2009 at 1:18 pm

Scientists grow fully functional tooth from stem cells

August 22, 4:12 PMNY Holistic Body & Spirit ExaminerTima Vlasto

Though teeth have been grown in mice before, scientists revealed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences their success at growing a “fully functional” tooth from stem cells in mice…

 

 

A denture-free world with adult stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on September 13, 2009 at 1:35 pm

bush stole my denturesNova Southeastern University’s dental researchers at the College of Dental Medicine are growing and harvesting human dental stem cells in the laboratory.A 2009 NSU survey of dentists around the nation revealed that more than half thought that they would be using stem cell and tissue engineering therapies on their patients within the next decade.

An overwhelming 96 percent of dentists believe the ability to regenerate and replace teeth and dental tissues is the future of dentistry, according to the survey…

 

Jaw bone created from (patient’s own) stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 21, 2010 at 5:13 pm

Jaw bone created from (patient’s own) stem cells – BBC NEWS | Health | – New bone created in the lab

The new bone was created from bone marrow stem cells

Scientists have created part of the jaw joint in the lab using human adult stem cells.

Two points from me:

1. Cloning, shmoning! The facts is, they have already created hearts, windpipes and jawbones from adult stem cells. No clones needed, no rejection issues, no transplants, no immunosuppressive drugs,….we can just make the bone, organ, teeth, etc that fit perfectly into your body because they are made from your body (and from your own stem cells)…

 

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on May 24, 2010 at 7:37 pm

I met with Dr. Mao last summer and I found his presentation fascinating and informative.  Imagine taking stem cells from your own body and regrowing your won teeth. No dentures, crowns, implants, foreign materials, etc. etc.  Imagine; tooth regeneration from your own body, for your own body.  -dg

Monday, May 24, 2010

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

A technique pioneered in the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory of Dr. Jeremy Mao, the Edward V. Zegarelli Professor of Dental Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, can orchestrate stem cells to migrate to a 3-D scaffold infused with growth factor, holding the translational potential to yield an anatomically correct tooth in as soon as nine weeks once implanted…

BBC News – Chemical found which ‘makes bone marrow repair skin’

In ALL ARTICLES on April 6, 2011 at 2:06 pm

‘Chemical found which ‘makes bone marrow repair skin’

Healing skin graft
Skin grafts trigger repair by bone marrow cells

The chemical which summons stem cells from bone marrow to the site of a wound has been discovered by scientists in the UK and Japan.

The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, identified the distress signal – HMGB1.

The authors believe it can be used to put “a megaphone in the system” to improve the treatment of injuries such as burns and leg ulcers.

Another UK expert said the research had potential.

Bone marrow was thought to play a role in repairing damaged skin, but the exact process was unknown.

https://i0.wp.com/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/genome/guide/img/GreenMouseAdult.gif

Scientists at Osaka University and King’s College London gave mice bone marrow cells that glow green – which can be tracked while moving round the body…

BBC News – Chemical found which ‘makes bone marrow repair skin’.

How nasal stem cells might prevent childhood deafness

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on March 31, 2011 at 12:35 pm
Australia is starting to catch up.  This procedure has been done in Asia, Europe and South America…just not in the USA or Australia. – dg
How nasal stem cells might prevent childhood deafness

Australian scientists have shown for the first time in mice that nasal stem cells injected into the inner ear have the potential to reverse or restore hearing during early onset sensorineural hearing loss.

Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when hearing cells in the cochlea lose their function. Frequently inherited, and usually starting during infancy and early childhood, the condition can slow a child’s development and lead to speech and language problems.

Drs Jeremy Sullivan, Sonali Pandit and Sharon Oleskevich from Sydney’s Garvan Institute of Medical Research, found that stem cells appear to release ‘factors’, or chemical substances, that help preserve the function of cochlear hearing cells, without the stem cells becoming part of the tissue of the inner ear. Their findings are published in STEM CELLS, now online.

“We are exploring the potential of stem cells to prevent or restore hearing loss in people,” said project leader Dr Sharon Oleskevich.

“The mice we are using have a very similar form of childhood deafness to their human counterparts – except, of course that mouse years are shorter. So a mouse will tend to lose their hearing within 3 months, where a person might take 8 years.”

“We are encouraged by our initial findings, because all the mice injected with stem cells showed improved hearing in comparison with those given a sham injection. Roughly half of the mice did very well indeed, although it is important to note that hearing was not completely restored to normal hearing levels.”

Adult human nasal stem cells were used in the procedure, because they are plentiful, easy to obtain and unspecialised (so have the ability to self-renew for long periods, as well as differentiate into cells with a variety of functions).

The same group of scientists has shown in previous publications that stem cells can also be used to improve hearing in noise-induced hearing loss – a condition that affects both young and older people.

It has taken 5 years to reach the current stage of research, and scientists anticipate that it will take a further decade at least for the findings to benefit people.

How nasal stem cells might prevent childhood deafness – insciences.

Umbilical cord stem cells accelerate diabetic wound healing

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 24, 2011 at 12:03 pm

Umbilical cord stem cells accelerate diabetic wound healing

Korean scientists have found that transplanting human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ‘significantly accelerate’ wound closure in diabetic mouse models.

Diabetes is often associated with impaired wound healing, according to study’s corresponding author, Wonhee Suh of the CHA University Stem Cell Institute.

“EPCs are involved in revascularization of injured tissue and tissue repair,” said Suh.

“Wounds associated with diabetes that resist healing are also associated with decreased peripheral blood flow and often resist current therapies.

“Normal wounds, without underlying pathological defects heal readily, but the healing deficiency of diabetic wounds can be attributed to a number of factors, including decreased production of growth factors and reduced revascularization,” he said.

For the study, the researchers transplanted EPCs into an experimental group of mice modeled with diabetes-associated wounds, but did not transplant EPCs into a control group.

They found that the EPCs “prompted wound healing and increased neovascularization” in the experimental group.

“The transplantation of EPCs derived from human umbilical blood cells accelerated wound closure in diabetic mice from the earliest point,” said Suh.

The researchers found that growth factors and cytokines (small proteins secreted by specific cells of the immune system) were “massively produced” at the wounded skin sites and contributed to the healing process.

The study has been published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation. (ANI)

STEM CELLS REMOVE AGING + DECLINE IN MUSCLES

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 14, 2011 at 2:38 pm

“Scientists have created a ‘Mighty Mouse’ with muscles that stay powerful as it grows old,” the Daily Mail has reported. The newspaper said the ‘breakthrough’ paves the way for a “pill to give pensioners the strength of their youth, cutting the risks of falls and fractures in old age”.

The story comes from research on mice that found that transplanting donor muscle stem cells into injured leg muscles led to a 50% increase in muscle mass and a 170% increase in muscle size. The improvements were maintained though the lifetime of the mouse.

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2010/11November/Pages/stem-cells-muscle-decline.aspx.

Researchers find that single gene responsible for OCD-like behaviors in mice

In ALL ARTICLES on April 26, 2010 at 7:05 pm

https://repairstemcell.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/mouse-science-diabetes1.jpg

April 26, 2010

Researchers at the Ansary Stem Cell Institute and the Department of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College discovered that mice missing a single gene developed repetitive obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors. The genetically altered mice, which behaved much like people with a certain type of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), could help scientists design new therapies for this debilitating condition.

The researchers made this serendipitous discovery while looking at the role of a gene, called Slitrk5, which they had earlier linked to blood stem cells and vascular cells. In the April 25 online edition of Nature Medicine they report how, in follow-up studies, mice in which the gene was disabled (“knocked-out”) demonstrated obsessive self-grooming and extreme anxiety. Further study showed that the frontal lobe-to-striatum circuitry of the brains of these mice were altered in the same ways that are implicated in OCD in humans.

This discovery links Slitrk5 to development of OCD-like behaviors, and offers scientists a new mouse model of the disorder, say the study’s senior co-investigators, Dr. Shahin Rafii and Dr. Francis S.Y. Lee. Dr. Rafii is director of the Ansary Stem Cell Institute and professor in genetic medicine Weill Cornell Medical College and and an HHMI investigator. Dr. Lee is associate professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at the Medical College.

“Overall, our data suggest that Slitrk5 may have a central role in the development of the core symptoms of OCD — self-injurious, repetitive behavior and increased anxiety,” Dr. Rafii says. “Very few psychiatric disorders have been linked to a single gene, and it will be important to find out if patients with the disorder have an alteration of Slitrk5.”

…..

via Researchers find that single gene responsible for OCD-like behaviors in mice.

CATCH UP! – Stem Cell Therapy May Offer Hope For Acute Lung Injury

In CATCH UP! on October 29, 2009 at 3:28 am

The USA is so far behind the rest of the world it scares me.  The lungs are the greediest of all of the organs in the body for stem cells.  ALI, COPD, etc have been treated around the world with adult stem cells for a long time now.  There was even a clinical trial in Dresden on 86 human patients   –

“Acute Lung Injury After Allogeneic Transplantation – Diagnosis and Early Treatment”

Enrollment: 86
Study Start Date: December 2001
Primary Completion Date: August 2005 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

…and the US is just barely putting a toe in the water with mouse studies? It’s time to CATCH UP!

-DG

https://i1.wp.com/stopsmokingnow.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/lungs.gif

Lungs

Stem Cell Therapy May Offer Hope For Acute Lung Injury

ScienceDaily (Oct. 28, 2009) — Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have shown that adult stem cells from bone marrow can prevent acute lung injury in a mouse model of the disease.

https://i1.wp.com/news.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/gifs/mice_smooth.jpg

Their results are reported online in the October issue of the journal Stem Cells.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is responsible for an estimated 74,500 deaths in the U.S. each year. ALI can be caused by any major inflammation or injury to the lungs and is a major cause of death in patients in hospital ICUs. There is no effective drug treatment…

Except for adult stem cell treatments outside the US which you can find here – TREATMENT INFO NOW

via Stem Cell Therapy May Offer Hope For Acute Lung Injury.

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