Stem Cells Improve Cognition After Brain Injury
Research led by Charles Cox at the University of Texas Health Science Center has shown that stem cell therapy given during the critical time window after traumatic brain injury promotes lasting cognitive improvement. These experiments, which were published in the latest issue of the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine, provide a pre-clinical model for experiments with larger animals.
After the brain has suffered a traumatic injury, there are few treatment options. Damage to the brain can be severe, and can also cause ongoing neurological impairment. Approximately half of all patients with severe head injuries need surgery to remove or repair ruptured blood vessels or bruised brain tissue.
In this work from Cox’s lab, stem cells from bone marrow known as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) were used. MAPCs seem to be a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells, and they have a documented ability to reduce inflammation in mice immediately after traumatic brain injury. Unfortunately, no one has measured the ability of MAPCs to improve the condition of the brain over time.
Cox, Distinguished Professor of Pediatric Surgery at the UTHealth Medical School and in collaboration with the Children’s Fund, Inc., injected two groups of brain-injured mice with MAPCs two hours after injury and then once again 24 hours later. One group received a dose of 2 million cells per kilogram and the other a dose five times greater.
After four months, those mice that had received the stronger dose not only continued to have less inflammation, but they also showed significant gains in cognitive function. Laboratory examination of the brains of these rodents confirmed that those that had received the higher dose of MAPCs had better brain function than those that had received the lower dose.
According to Cox, “Based on our data, we saw improved spatial learning, improved motor deficits and fewer active antibodies in the mice that were given the stronger concentration of MAPCs.” Cox also indicated that this study indicates that intravenous injection of MAPCs might very well become a viable treatment for people with traumatic brain injury in the future.