DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘genes’

HOW YOUR GENES ARE FOLDED REALLY MATTERS!

In ALL ARTICLES, genetic, HEALTH AND WELLNESS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on March 5, 2017 at 1:40 pm
“The folding mechanism of DNA is believed to play a large role in how genes are read by the rest of the cell…The results confirm that this second layer of information exists. This led them to conclude that genetic mutations are not just caused by a change in the sequence of codes but also by a change in the way the strands are folded
jeans-genes-cuffs-folding

EVERY time I have a conversation with someone who is 100% sure, I laugh inside and remember that everything we know for sure will be disproved within our lifetimes.

 
Medical science was 100% sure:
the heart doesn’t regenerate…wrong
the brain and central nervous system doesn’t regenerate…wrong
all of the ligaments have been found…wrong
butter is healthier, margarine is healthier, butter, margarine…wrong
stem cells don’t work…wrong
cholesterol is bad…wrong
our DNA doesn’t change and is absolute…wrong
and now…
Physicists Confirm There’s a Second Layer of Information Hidden in Our DNA
IN BRIEF: Theoretical physicists have confirmed that it’s not just the information coded in our DNA that shapes who we are—it’s also the way DNA folds itself that controls which genes are expressed inside our bodies.
 This changes everything.

We all learned in high school how Watson and Crick pieced together the findings of many scientists to come up with a model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Information in DNA is stored as code sequences made up of nitrogenous bases. Each cell has the same sequence of codes but executes a different function. Code sequences determine the type of protein to be produced in a certain cell, but it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the DNA acts as a second layer of information.

Each cell in our body contains around 2 meters of DNA. But since our cells are so tiny, DNA strands have to be tightly wrapped into bundles called nucleosomes in order to fit.

Learn more about DNA and nucleosomes in the video below:

The folding mechanism of DNA is believed to play a large role in how genes are read by the rest of the cell. Biologists have started to isolate mechanical cues that determine how DNA is folded. Now, theoretical physicists from Leiden University in the Netherlands confirmed through computer simulations that these cues are actually coded into our DNA.

Physicist Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated the folding of DNA strands with randomly assigned cues. The team used genomes of baker’s yeast and fission yeast to find correlations between the mechanics and the actual folding structure of DNA in the two organisms.

The results confirm that this second layer of information exists. This led them to conclude that genetic mutations are not just caused by a change in the sequence of codes but also by a change in the way the strands are folded. This simulation may be helpful in hiding unwanted sequences like those that cause diseases.

ScienceMode » CSHL researchers identify gene that helps plant cells keep communication channels open – Science News – From Science Mode.com

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on February 17, 2009 at 4:13 pm

CSHL researchers identify gene that helps plant cells keep communication channels open

By ScienceMode on Feb 17th, 2009 in Headlines, SM | Add story link to StumbleUpon

Plant cells communicate via microscopic channels called plasmodesmata that are embedded in their cell walls. For the stem cells in the plants’ growing tips, called “meristems,” the plasmodesmata are lifelines, allowing nutrients and genetic instructions for growth to flow in.

Developmental and environmental cues trigger changes in the structure of the tiny channels, thereby altering the flow of traffic through them. The genes and molecular pathways of the plant cell that respond to these cues, and the mechanisms that control channel structure and cell-to-cell traffic are, however, mostly unknown.

via ScienceMode » CSHL researchers identify gene that helps plant cells keep communication channels open – Science News – From Science Mode.com.

STEM CELL & LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA GENES FOUND

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS - 101, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on February 10, 2009 at 10:17 pm

suicide-genes-l

Sister genes maintain stem cells: Study

London (PTI): Scientists have discovered what they claim are two “sister” genes, which maintain the pool of adult stem cells destined to become blood.

An international team has found the two genes — the stem cell leukemia gene (Scl) and lymphoblastic leukemia gene 1 (Lyl1) — control transcription play often overlapping role in maintaining this pool of blood cell-forming stem cells.

“Both genes are involved in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. No one knew what role Lyl1 played in hematopoiesis (the formation of blood and related cells). The two of them have a functional redundancy. “If one is missing, the cell might be a little ‘sick’, but it survives. If both are missing, the cells die pretty quickly. Scl has been well studied and is a paradigm for hematopoiesis.

“Lyl1 was a lost sister. Only recently have a few groups studied it,” the study’s lead author Margaret Goodell of the Center of Baylor College of Medicine wrote in the Cell Stem Cell journal.

Stem cells of any kind are defined by their eternal nature, reproducing themselves and providing a pool of cells, from which more differentiated tissues arise. Previous studies had shown that when animals lacked the Scl in the embryonic stage, they did not make progenitor cells intrinsic to the formation of the blood cells and had defects in the blood vessel system.

“Up to this point, it was believed that Scl was dispensable for maintaining adult hematopoietic stem cell function after development. Our study shows that not only it’s dispensable, but it collaborates with Lyl1, and both necessary for cell survival,” co-author George Souroullas said.

According to the scientists, the study also suggests that Scl and Lyl1 are not only important in the formation of these kinds of stem cell but also for their maintenance in adults.

“While these genes are very similar and functionally redundant in adult stem cells, some molecular differences in protein structure, supported by other data in our lab, suggest that they may have distinct functions in differentiated blood cell types,” Souroullas said.

Add to FacebookAdd to DiggAdd to Del.icio.usAdd to StumbleuponAdd to RedditAdd to BlinklistAdd to Ma.gnoliaAdd to TechnoratiAdd to FurlAdd to Newsvine

via The Hindu News Update Service.

%d bloggers like this: