DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘donor’

INTER-SPECIES PANCREAS TRANSPLANT REVERSES DIABETES

In HEALTH AND WELLNESS, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 8, 2017 at 12:33 pm

Color Rat Laboratory Cage Mammal Rat Rodent Pet

Let’s take a page out of what was not too long ago science fiction; which is now science-fact.

  • A pancreas was grown in a rat,
  • the organ was transplanted into a mouse,
  • the mouse was given immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection,
  • the diabetic mice were able to normalize their blood glucose levels for over a year.

This illustrates the long proven regenerative capacity of stem cells and the recent advancements scientists have made with anti-rejection protocols…And of course, the cool inter-species transplant of rat to mouse.

Rat-grown mouse pancreases help reverse diabetes in mice

Growing organs from one species in the body of another may one day relieve transplant shortages. Now researchers show that islets from rat-grown mouse pancreases can reverse disease when transplanted into diabetic mice.

White rat with black patches

A rat in which researchers were able to grow a mouse pancreas. Islets from the pancreases were transplanted into mice with diabetes. The transplants helped control the mice’s blood sugar levels.
Courtesy of the Nakauchi lab

 Mouse pancreases grown in rats generate functional, insulin-producing cells that can reverse diabetes when transplanted into mice with the disease, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Tokyo.

The recipient animals required only days of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the genetically matched organ rather than lifelong treatment.

The success of the interspecies transplantation suggests that a similar technique could one day be used to generate matched, transplantable human organs in large animals like pigs and sheep.

To conduct the work, the researchers implanted mouse pluripotent stem cells, which can become any cell in the body, into early rat embryos. The rats had been genetically engineered to be unable to develop their own pancreas and were thus forced to rely on the mouse cells for the development of the organ.

Once the rats were born and grown, the researchers transplanted the insulin-producing cells, which cluster together in groups called islets, from the rat-grown pancreases into mice genetically matched to the stem cells that formed the pancreas. These mice had been given a drug to cause them to develop diabetes.

“We found that the diabetic mice were able to normalize their blood glucose levels for over a year after the transplantation of as few as 100 of these islets,” said Hiromitsu Nakauchi, MD, PhD, a professor of genetics at Stanford. “Furthermore, the recipient animals only needed treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for five days after transplantation, rather than the ongoing immunosuppression that would be needed for unmatched organs.”

Nakauchi, who is a member of Stanford’s Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, is the senior author of a paper describing the findings, which was published online Jan. 25 in Nature. Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, PhD, an associate professor of stem cell therapy, and researcher Hideyuki Sato, both from the University of Tokyo, share lead authorship of the paper.

Hiro Nakauchi

Although much research remains to be done, scientist Hiromitsu Nakauchi and his colleagues believe their work with rodents shows that a similar technique could one day be used to generate matched, transplantable human organs in large animals like pigs and sheep.
Wing Hon Films

Organs in short supply

About 76,000 people in the United States are currently waiting for an organ transplant, but organs are in short supply. Generating genetically matched human organs in large animals could relieve the shortage and release transplant recipients from the need for lifelong immunosuppression, the researchers say.

People suffering from diabetes could also benefit from this approach. Diabetes is a life-threating metabolic disease in which a person or animal is unable to either make or respond appropriately to insulin, which is a hormone that allows the body to regulate its blood sugar levels in response to meals or fasting. The disease affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. The transplantation of functional islets from healthy pancreases has been shown to be a potentially viable option to treat diabetes in humans, as long as rejection can be avoided.

The researchers’ current findings come on the heels of a previous study in which they grew rat pancreases in mice. Although the organs appeared functional, they were the size of a normal mouse pancreas rather than a larger rat pancreas. As a result, there were not enough functional islets in the smaller organs to successfully reverse diabetes in rats.

Mouse pancreases grown in rats

In the current study, the researchers swapped the animals’ roles, growing mouse pancreases in rats engineered to lack the organ. The pancreases were able to successfully regulate the rats’ blood sugar levels, indicating they were functioning normally. Rejection of the mouse pancreases by the rats’ immune systems was uncommon because the mouse cells were injected into the rat embryo prior to the development of immune tolerance, which is a period during development when the immune system is trained to recognize its own tissues as “self.” Most of these mouse-derived organs grew to the size expected for a rat pancreas, rendering enough individual islets for transplantation

Next, the researchers transplanted 100 islets from the rat-grown pancreases back into mice with diabetes. Subsequently, these mice were able to successfully control their blood sugar levels for over 370 days, the researchers found.

Because the transplanted islets contained some contaminating rat cells, the researchers treated each recipient mouse with immunosuppressive drugs for five days after transplant. After this time, however, the immunosuppression was stopped.

After about 10 months, the researchers removed the islets from a subset of the mice for inspection.

“We examined them closely for the presence of any rat cells, but we found that the mouse’s immune system had eliminated them,” said Nakauchi. “This is very promising for our hope to transplant human organs grown in animals because it suggests that any contaminating animal cells could be eliminated by the patient’s immune system after transplant.”

Importantly, the researchers also did not see any signs of tumor formation or other abnormalities caused by the pluripotent mouse stem cells that formed the islets. Tumor formation is often a concern when pluripotent stem cells are used in an animal due to the cells’ remarkable developmental plasticity. The researchers believe the lack of any signs of cancer is likely due to the fact that the mouse pluripotent stem cells were guided to generate a pancreas within the developing rat embryo, rather than coaxed to develop into islet cells in the laboratory. The researchers are working on similar animal-to-animal experiments to generate kidneys, livers and lungs.

Although the findings provide proof-of-principle for future work, much research remains to be done. Ethical considerations are also important when human stem cells are transplanted into animal embryos, the researchers acknowledge.

The research was funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, a KAKENHI grant, the Japan Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Network and the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

Stanford’s Department of Genetics also supported the work.

Taunton Elks Lodge the host of marrow drive to save a 5-year-old girl – Taunton, MA – The Taunton Gazette

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 11, 2011 at 1:11 am

For three hours on Thursday, the main room of the Elks Lodge 150 on High Street was the scene of an effort to help save the life of a 5-year-old girl.

Unless she receives a successful bone marrow transplant, doctors say Katelyn Bailey won’t survive.

 

Katelyn, who had been living at home in Middletown, R.I. with her parents Michelle and Larry, and her now 9-month-old sister Meghan, has recently undergone chemotherapy at Hasbro Children’s Hospital in Providence.

Her parents have taken temporary, partial leaves from their jobs to be by her bedside, and relatives are helping out by taking turns baby-sitting baby Meghan, said Taunton Police Patrolman Ernie Chretien.

Chretien, a first cousin of Meghan’s mom Michelle, organized and arranged the “Be The Match Registry” drive, in conjunction with Rhode Island Blood Center, to be held at the Elks Lodge.

To say Katelyn is facing an uphill battle is putting it lightly, Chretien said.

When she was 9 months old, she was diagnosed with a rare form of brain cancer known as AT/RT, or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. She responded to chemo and radiation, and the cancer went into remission, he said.

But she also suffered side effects as a result. Chretien said her speech development was delayed and she relied on a feeding tube; it wasn’t until she was 4, he said, that she began eating solid food.

Chretien said the last time he saw Katelyn was Christmas week when he visited at her home.

“She seemed healthy and cheerful,” he said.

But by early February she was exhibiting flu-like symptoms and was taken to Hasbro, where she was diagnosed with an advanced form of leukemia…

Read more: Taunton Elks Lodge the host of marrow drive to save a 5-year-old girl – Taunton, MA – The Taunton Gazette http://www.tauntongazette.com/archive/x13267752/Taunton-Elks-Lodge-the-host-of-marrow-drive-to-save-a-5-year-old-girl#ixzz1GGSxUGZR

Taunton Elks Lodge the host of marrow drive to save a 5-year-old girl – Taunton, MA – The Taunton Gazette.

STEM CELLS REMOVE AGING + DECLINE IN MUSCLES

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 14, 2011 at 2:38 pm

“Scientists have created a ‘Mighty Mouse’ with muscles that stay powerful as it grows old,” the Daily Mail has reported. The newspaper said the ‘breakthrough’ paves the way for a “pill to give pensioners the strength of their youth, cutting the risks of falls and fractures in old age”.

The story comes from research on mice that found that transplanting donor muscle stem cells into injured leg muscles led to a 50% increase in muscle mass and a 170% increase in muscle size. The improvements were maintained though the lifetime of the mouse.

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2010/11November/Pages/stem-cells-muscle-decline.aspx.

“Dwarf’s (lung) standing on the shoulders of giant’s (heart)”

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on July 15, 2010 at 1:12 pm

“Dwarf’s (lung) standing on the shoulders of giant’s (heart)”

(Latin: nanos gigantium humeris insidentes) is a Western metaphor meaning “One who develops future intellectual pursuits by understanding the research and works created by notable thinkers of the past.

A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant

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Lungssss, get yer lungs here!

Soon enough, organs grown from YOUR OWN stem cells will be available at a store near you.  What began as the outlandish quest of one woman in 1998…one woman who swam against a huge tidal flow of scientists and doctors telling her she was out of her mind…is now, almost 20 years later, hitting mainstream science, academia and media.

Who is this woman and what did she do?  You’ve probably never heard of her (unless you’ve read my book – “Super Stemmys) but she will most likely go down in history as the mother of 21st century patient specific organ regeneration. Organs, btw, that are both rejection free and require no immunosuppressive drugs. In other words…

YOUR OWN organs grown from YOUR OWN stem cells.”

Here’s how it all started…

1998 – Dr Doris Taylor takes stem cells from the thigh of a rabbit, injects them into scar tissue in the animal’s heart and repairs the damaged muscle.  Published in Nature Medicine.

2002 – Dr Taylor herself witnessed, in Rotterdam, the first patient in the world to get stem cells injected through a catheter into the wall of the heart. Encouraging results began to come in—improved ejection fractions, reduced diameters, thicker muscle tissue.

2005 – Advancements continue as Dr Taylor rinses rat hearts with detergent until the cells washed away and all that remained was a skeleton of tissue translucent as wax paper. She then injected the scaffold with fresh heart (stem) cells from newborn rats.  Four days later, “We could see these little areas that were beginning to beat.  By eight days, we could see the whole heart beating.”  The experiment, reported in the journal Nature Medicine, marked the first time scientists had created a functioning heart in the lab from biological tissue.

Read it again! Doctor Doris Taylor grew a new heart in a lab 5 YEARS AGO!

So congrats to the docs at Harvard Medical School for growing a lung…just don’t forget that Dr Doris Taylor’s heart is the giant on whose shoulders your lung is standing. -dg

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Stem cell scientists unveil lab-grown lung – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

By Kellie Lazzaro

Updated Wed Jul 14, 2010 11:04am AEST

Harvard doctors used stem cells to generate the organ. (Supplied: Harald C Ott)

A decellularized rat lung. Harvard doctors have used stem cells to generate the artificial organ

Artificial lung: a recellularized lung in a bioreactor during organ culture (Supplied: Harald C Ott)

Artificial lung: a recellularized lung in a bioreactor during organ culture (Supplied: Harald C Ott)

First breath: the recellularized rat lung takes in air at the end of the organ culture period (Supplied: Harald C Ott )

American researchers have provided some hope for the hundreds of Australians languishing on organ-transplant waiting lists.

Doctors at the Harvard Medical School have used stem cells to construct a miniature lung, which functioned for up to six hours when transplanted into a rat.

Lung transplant specialists say the research is a significant breakthrough in efforts to develop ways to expand the organ donor pool.

For the 50 million people worldwide with end-stage lung disease, the only definitive treatment is a transplant.

Kate Hayne, 66, waited four years for a double lung transplant after she was diagnosed with bronchiectasis.

“You’re waiting for the phone to ring and it doesn’t ring and you’re life is getting narrower and narrower because you can do less and less and less,” she said.

“You’re basically waiting to die … and a lot of people do die.

“I met some lovely people who didn’t survive the wait.”

It is hoped the research by the Harvard Medical School in Boston will go some way towards improving the chances of survival.

Dr Harald Ott and his team removed the cells from a rat lung and rebuilt the organ blueprint using human umbilical and foetal rat cells.

Within about a week that lung began exchanging oxygen like normal lungs and was transplanted into a rat where it continued functioning for six hours.

“There’s a lot of work to do in up scaling this now from rats to human-sized organs,” he said.

“But I think that we are looking at a situation where over the next five to 10 years we might be seeing more regenerated products to actually hit the patients’ side.”

Professor Allan Glanville, the medical head of lung transplantation at Sydney’s St Vincent’s Hospital, says specialists in Australia are watching with interest.

“This is extraordinarily exciting work and it lays the groundwork for the beginning of the development of a inartificial lung that might benefit so many people,” he said.

Dr Michael Musk, who heads the West Australian Lung Transplant program, agrees the research is a huge step forward.

“It hopefully means we don’t need the degree or amount of immunosuppression required, which is associated with a lot of side effects,” he said.

“It would not only improve donor pool, but also improve the quality of life.”

The research is published today in the journal Nature Medicine (see Technical Report abstract below).

via Stem cell scientists unveil lab-grown lung – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation).


Nature Medicine
Published online: 13 July 2010 | doi:10.1038/nm.2193

Regeneration and orthotopic transplantation of a bioartificial lung

Harald C Ott1, Ben Clippinger1, Claudius Conrad1, Christian Schuetz1, Irina Pomerantseva1, Laertis Ikonomou2, Darrell Kotton2 & Joseph P Vacanti1


About 2,000 patients now await a donor lung in the United States. Worldwide, 50 million individuals are living with end-stage lung disease. Creation of a bioartificial lung requires engineering of viable lung architecture enabling ventilation, perfusion and gas exchange. We decellularized lungs by detergent perfusion and yielded scaffolds with acellular vasculature, airways and alveoli. To regenerate gas exchange tissue, we seeded scaffolds with epithelial and endothelial cells. To establish function, we perfused and ventilated cell-seeded constructs in a bioreactor simulating the physiologic environment of developing lung. By day 5, constructs could be perfused with blood and ventilated using physiologic pressures, and they generated gas exchange comparable to that of isolated native lungs. To show in vivo function, we transplanted regenerated lungs into orthotopic position. After transplantation, constructs were perfused by the recipient’s circulation and ventilated by means of the recipient’s airway and respiratory muscles, and they provided gas exchange in vivo for up to 6 h after extubation.


To read this technical report in full you will need to login or make a payment at Nature Medicine.  – http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.2193.html

About sickle cell disease and cure

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 12, 2009 at 1:08 pm

sicklecell

About sickle cell disease and cure -Thursday, March 12, 2009 -Ann Arbor News

# Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects about one in 625 African Americans. Sickle cells are defective red blood cells that are supposed to carry oxygen, but instead clump and block blood vessels, causing excruciating pain, strokes, and damage to the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, bones and muscle.

# The only cure has been a bone marrow transplant from a related donor, usually a sibling. African-American donors are the best genetic match for African-American sickle cell and cancer patients. Patients have only a 14 percent chance of a family match because family members also tend to have the disease. People who have the sickle cell trait, but not the disease, may donate blood and bone marrow.

# Bone marrow donation no longer requires drilling holes in the donor’s pelvic bones to harvest marrow. Donors receive injections of a medication that draws stem cells out of bone marrow into the bloodstream. Blood is taken through an intravenous line in the donor’s arm, stem cells are filtered out, then the blood is returned to the donor.

via About sickle cell disease and cure – MLive.com.

Portrait of an Angel: Mary Kruse

In ALL ARTICLES, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on March 6, 2009 at 12:55 pm
angel_davinci_

Angel by DaVinci

Volunteers take bone marrow to where it’s needed

3/6/2009 9:50:02 AM – By Jeff Hansel – Post-Bulletin, Rochester MN

On her missions, Mary Kruse of Rochester must prepare for the unexpected: Quick flight changes, multiple taxi, plane and bus connections, delays at the airport.

She’s not a secret agent. Instead, she’s one of about 250 couriers for the National Bone Marrow Donor Program.

Her volunteer work could be viewed as a way to get free trips and hotel rooms. Indeed, she’ll occasionally stay an extra night after a mission, but she pays for the extra hotel time and her focus is marrow delivery.

“It is the most gratifying feeling to know that when you hand that over that hopefully we’re saving a life,” she said.

To save more people, she and the five other couriers in Rochester need more people to register as marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donors.

“There is a great need to increase the number of adult donors on the registry,” said program spokeswoman Kristen Spargo. Couriers take coolers of bone marrow or stem cells from where a donor is to where the patient is being treated.

“We fly from city to city, anywhere across the United States, and pick up the bone marrow and deliver it to the next city, where the transplant center is,” Kruse said. She has never done an international mission, but might someday.

Spargo said people with leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell anemia and other conditions need transplants. Chemotherapy disables the immune system and stem cells or marrow help rebuild immunity. Volunteers get intense training about topics like patient privacy and airport security guidelines.

Why are couriers so important? Because 70 percent of people who need a marrow or stem cell transplant must seek a match outside their families. The patient and donor are rarely in the same city.

via Postbulletin.com: Rochester, MN.

Using Stem Cells To Make Blood Substitutes | Science & Technology | Chemical & Engineering News

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 23, 2009 at 9:56 am
The Real Thing: Red blood cells, which are about 7 µm wide, deliver oxygen to the body, a process that blood substitutes aim to emulate.
Tina Carvalho/U of Hawaii, Manoa
The Real Thing Red blood cells, which are about 7 µm wide, deliver oxygen to the body, a process that blood substitutes aim to emulate.

February 23, 2009 -Volume 87, Number 8 – Using Stem Cells To Make Blood Substitutes

Artificial blood derived from cord blood stem cells is being tested in humans

Sarah Everts

For decades, researchers have been trying to develop artificial blood to eliminate reliance on blood donors, as well as the risk of infectious disease transmission and blood-type rejection.

The Real Thing: Red blood cells, which are about 7 µm wide, deliver oxygen to the body, a process that blood substitutes aim to emulate.

The Real Thing Red blood cells, which are about 7 µm wide, deliver oxygen to the body, a process that blood substitutes aim to emulate.

Although billions of dollars have been invested, the Food & Drug Administration has not yet approved a blood substitute for use in humans. Now French researchers are set to conduct the first human clinical trials of red blood cells harvested from stem cells.

via Using Stem Cells To Make Blood Substitutes | Science & Technology | Chemical & Engineering News.

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