DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘Diabetes mellitus type 1’

STEM CELL THERAPY REVERSES DIABETES

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 7, 2013 at 9:00 am

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“…findings from this study demonstrate the feasibility and safety of Stem Cell Educator therapy and demonstrate that Type 1 Diabetes patients achieve improved metabolic control and reduced autoimmunity that lasts months following a single treatment.”  “…clinical data provide powerful evidence that reversal of autoimmunity leads to regeneration of islet β cells and improvement of metabolic control in long-standing Type 1 Diabetes subjects. This principle may also be beneficial in the treatment of other autoimmune-related diseases.”

Stem Cell Therapy Reverses Diabetes: Stem Cells from Cord Blood Used to Re-Educate Diabetic’s Own T Cells

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the body’s own immune system attacking its pancreatic islet beta cells and requires daily injections of insulin to regulate the patient’s blood glucose levels. A new method described in BioMed Central‘s open access journal BMC Medicine uses stem cells from cord blood to re-educate a diabetic’s own T cells and consequently restart pancreatic function reducing the need for insulin.

Stem Cell Educator therapy slowly passes lymphocytes separated from a patient’s blood over immobilized cord blood stem cells (CBSC) from healthy donors. After two to three hours in the device the re-educated lymphocytes are returned to the patient. The progress of the patients was checked at 4, 12, 24 and 40 weeks after therapy.

C-peptide is a protein fragment made as a by-product of insulin manufacture and can be used to determine how well beta cells are working. By 12 weeks after treatment all the patients who received the therapy had improved levels of C-peptide. This continued to improve at 24 weeks and was maintained to the end of the study. This meant that the daily dose of insulin required to maintain their blood glucose levels could be reduced. In accordance with these results the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) indicator of long term glucose control also dropped for people receiving the treatment, but not the control group.

Dr Yong Zhao, from University of Illinois at Chicago, who led the multi-centre research, explained: “We also saw an improved autoimmune control in these patients. Stem Cell Educator therapy increased the percentage of regulatory T lymphocytes in the blood of people in the treatment group. Other markers of immune function, such as TGF-beta1 also improved. Our results suggest that it is this improvement in autoimmune control, mediated by the autoimmune regulator AIRE in the CBSC, which allows the pancreatic islet beta cells to recover.”

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012.htm

To view the full research article – http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/3

To view the clinical trial – http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01350219

PANCREAS STEM CELL DISCOVERY

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on December 17, 2012 at 9:00 am

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Professor Len Harrison

A significant step discovered in the fight against Type 1 diabetes.  An Australian team of scientists and researchers led by Dr. Ilia Banakh and Professor Len Harrison have developed a technique to manipulate isolated stem cells for the adult pancreas to become insulin-producing beta cells capable of producing insulin in response to glucose.  “The discovery could bring closer the time when people with type 1 diabetes will be able to produce their own insulin and be free of the multiple daily injections”.

-DG

The discovery was made by scientists from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and provides further evidence that stem cells don’t only occur in the embryo.

The ability to produce the hormone insulin is crucial for controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels.  In people with type 1 diabetes the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, leading to a potentially fatal elevation of blood glucose levels.  People with type 1 diabetes rely on multiple daily injections of insulin, or an insulin infusion pump, to control their blood glucose, but control is not perfect and they are at risk of serious long-term health complications.

Dr Ilia Banakh and Professor Len Harrison from the institute’s Molecular Medicine division have not only identified and isolated stem cells from the adult pancreas, but developed a technique to drive these stem cells to become insulin-producing cells that can secrete insulin in response to glucose.

Professor Harrison said that insulin-producing cells had previously been generated from cells in the adult pancreas with ‘stem cell-like’ properties. “But what Dr Banakh has done is pinpoint the cell of origin of the insulin-producing cells and shown that the number of these cells and their ability to turn into insulin-producing cells increases in response to pancreas injury. This is exciting, because it means that the potential to regenerate insulin-producing cells is there in all of us, even as adults,” Professor Harrison said.

“In the long-term, we hope that people with type 1 diabetes might be able to regenerate their own insulin-producing cells. This would mean that they could make their own insulin and regain control of their blood glucose levels, curing their diabetes. Of course, this strategy will only work if we can devise ways to overcome the immune attack on the insulin-producing cells, that causes diabetes in the first place,” Professor Harrison said.

http://www.wehi.edu.au/uploads/Harrison_PLOS_One_Final.pdf

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