DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘columbia’

WHAT DOES THE FOXO1 SAY? HERE’S MORE INSULIN!

In ALL ARTICLES, BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS on July 5, 2014 at 10:20 am
It May Take Guts to Cure Diabetes -Human GI Cells Retrained to Produce Insulin

Imagine taking cells from your gastrointestinal tract and then switching off one gene, the FOXO1 gene, and then ending up with insulin producing cells.  From gut cell to diabetes fighter in one easy gene switch-off.  Scientists did this successfully in 2012 in mice and recently in humans.  What does the FOXO1 say? ‘Here’s more insulin!’  Awesome.

The next step is where it gets…awkward.  I’d like this information to generate a gene therapy protocol or to improve success rates in stem cell/Diabetes treatment protocols,  etc.  But that’s not the way our system works.  The next step is to find a drug that inhibits the FOXO1 gene so it “…could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin…”  Unfortunately, this drug will also have side effects as all drugs do which will create other symptoms requiring other drugs to mitigate.  And so it goes.

When will US Diabetes patients be able to benefit from a medical protocol based on this discovery?  An educated guess puts it at:
7-10 years for clinical trials and drug development for a name brand Pharma product and then 10-15 years for the drug patent to open up to an affordable generic.
Sorry Diabetes patients.

New York, NY (June 30, 2014) “By switching off a single gene, scientists at Columbia University’s Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin…The Columbia researchers were able to teach human gut cells to make insulin in response to physiological circumstances by deactivating the cells’ FOXO1 gene.”

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on May 24, 2010 at 7:37 pm

I met with Dr. Mao last summer and I found his presentation fascinating and informative.  Imagine taking stem cells from your own body and regrowing your won teeth. No dentures, crowns, implants, foreign materials, etc. etc.  Imagine; tooth regeneration from your own body, for your own body.  -dg

Monday, May 24, 2010

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

A technique pioneered in the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory of Dr. Jeremy Mao, the Edward V. Zegarelli Professor of Dental Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, can orchestrate stem cells to migrate to a 3-D scaffold infused with growth factor, holding the translational potential to yield an anatomically correct tooth in as soon as nine weeks once implanted.
People who have lost some or all of their adult teeth typically look to dentures, or, more recently, dental implants to improve a toothless appearance that can have a host of unsettling psycho-social ramifications. Despite being the preferred (but generally painful and potentially protracted) treatment for missing teeth nowadays, dental implants can fail and are unable to “remodel” with surrounding jaw bone that undergoes necessary changes throughout a person’s life.
An animal-model study has shown that by homing stem cells to a scaffold made of natural materials and integrated in surrounding tissue, there is no need to use harvested stem cell lines, or create an environment outside of the body (e.g., a Petri dish) where the tooth is grown and then implanted once it has matured. The tooth instead can be grown “orthotopically,” or in the socket where the tooth will integrate with surrounding tissue in ways that are impossible with hard metals or other materials.
Human molar scaffolding from the lab of Dr. Jeremy Mao
Human Molar Scaffold
“These findings represent the first report of regeneration of anatomically shaped tooth-like structures in vivo, and by cell homing without cell delivery,” Dr. Mao and his colleagues say in the paper. “The potency of cell homing is substantiated not only by cell recruitment into scaffold microchannels, but also by the regeneration of periodontal ligaments and newly formed alveolar bone.”
This study is published in the most recent Journal of Dental Research, the top-rated, peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry, the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease.
Dental implants usually consist of a cone-shaped titanium screw with a roughened or smooth surface and are placed in the jaw bone. While implant surgery may be performed as an outpatient procedure, healing times vary widely and successful implantation is a result of multiple visits to different clinicians, including general dentists, oral surgeons, prosthodontists and periodontists. Implant patients must allow two to six months for healing and if the implant is installed too soon, it is possible that the implant may fail. The subsequent time to heal, graft and eventually put into place a new implant may take up to 18 months.
The work of Dr. Mao and his laboratory, however, holds manifold promise: a more natural process, faster recovery times and a harnessing of the body’s own potential to re-grow tissue that will not give out and could ultimately last the patient’s lifetime.
“A key consideration in tooth regeneration is finding a cost-effective approach that can translate into therapies for patients who cannot afford or who aren’t good candidates for dental implants,” Dr. Mao says. “Cell-homing-based tooth regeneration may provide a tangible pathway toward clinical translation.”

Dr. Ira B. Lamster, dean of the College of Dental Medicine, stated: “This research provides an example of what is achievable when today’s biology is applied to common clinical problems. Dr. Mao’s research is a look into the future of dental medicine.”

via Nano Patents and Innovations: Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration.

Jaw bone created from (patient’s own) stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 21, 2010 at 5:13 pm

Jaw bone created from (patient’s own) stem cells – BBC NEWS | Health | – New bone created in the lab

The new bone was created from bone marrow stem cells

Scientists have created part of the jaw joint in the lab using human adult stem cells.

Two points from me:

1. Cloning, shmoning! The facts is, they have already created hearts, windpipes and jawbones from adult stem cells. No clones needed, no rejection issues, no transplants, no immunosuppressive drugs,….we can just make the bone, organ, teeth, etc that fit perfectly into your body because they are made from your body (and from your own stem cells).

2. The only problem is the USA is Soooooo S…L….O….W to pick up on the information that the rest of the world has already known about for years. As far as stem cell advances go…we went from world leader to “back of da bus” in half a decade…and I doubt we will ever catch up!

They say it is the first time a complex, anatomically-sized bone has been accurately created in this way.

It is hoped the technique could be used not only to treat disorders of the specific joint, but more widely to correct problems with other bones too.

The Columbia University study appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The bone which has been created in the lab is known as the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

The availability of personalized bone grafts engineered from the patient’s own stem cells would revolutionise the way we currently treat these defects – Dr Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Columbia University

Problems with the joint can be the result of birth defects, arthritis or injury.

Although they are widespread, treatment can be difficult.

The joint has a complex structure which makes it difficult to repair by using grafts from bones elsewhere in the body.

The latest study used human stem cells taken from bone marrow.

These were seeded into a tissue scaffold, formed into the precise shape of the human jaw bone by using digital images from a patient.

The cells were then cultured using a specially-designed bioreactor which was able to infuse the growing tissue with exactly the level of nutrients found during natural bone development.

Big potential

Lead researcher Dr Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic said: “The availability of personalised bone grafts engineered from the patient’s own stem cells would revolutionise the way we currently treat these defects.”

Dr Vunjak-Novakovic said the new technique could also be applied to other bones in the head and neck, including skull bones and cheek bones, which are similarly difficult to graft.

The option to engineer anatomically pieces of human bone in this way could potentially transform the ability to carry out reconstruction work, for instance following serious injury or cancer treatment.

She said: “We thought the jawbone would be the most rigorous test of our technique; if you can make this, you can make any shape.”

She stressed that the joint created in the lab was bone only, and did not include other tissue, such as cartilage. However, the Columbia team is working on a new method for engineering hybrid grafts including bone and cartilage.

Another major challenge for scientists will be to find a way to engineer bone with a blood supply that can be easily connected to the blood supply of the host.

Professor Anthony Hollander, a tissue engineering expert from the University of Bristol who helped produce an artificial windpipe last year, said there was still a lot of work to be done before the new bone could be used on patients.

But he said: “One of the major problems facing scientists in this field is how to engineer a piece of bone with the right dimensions – that is critical for some of these bone defects.

“This is a lovely piece of tissue engineering which has produced bone with a high degree of accuracy in terms of shape.”

via BBC NEWS | Health | Jaw bone created from stem cells.

RESEARCH FROM 90’S CURES TYPE 1 DIABETES!

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on September 13, 2009 at 8:36 pm

Published 23 January 2009

Twelve years ago, Irving Weissman discovered a treatment that might have saved the lives of thousands of women with advanced breast cancer, but pharmaceutical companies weren’t interested in developing the therapy. Though that interest is finally being reignited, Weissman doesn’t pull any punches. “I hate to say I told you so,” he said.

Weissman, a professor of pathology and developmental biology at Stanford University, spoke Wednesday and Thursday at Columbia University.

Weissman laid out the conceptual foundation of his work—that stem cells are rare, self-renewing, and can regenerate body tissues. Weissman repeatedly expressed frustration that while many of his discoveries seemed to hold remarkable potential for life-saving treatments, commercial or regulatory hurdles have prevented his scientific research from benefiting human beings.

One example is

Weissman’s mid-’90s research on type I diabetes, in which he demonstrated the ability to fully cure type I diabetes in mice using stem cells.

But even though the experiments avoided political controversy by using so-called adult stem cells, which do not come from embryos, Weissman ran into a road block when pharmaceutical companies refused to sponsor clinical trials. The therapy went nowhere. Weissman implied that the pharmaceutical companies had put profit over principle, preferring to keep diabetes sufferers dependent on costly insulin than to cure them once and for all.

“He [Weissman] has a long history of being at the forefront of his field,” Arthur Palmer, professor of structural biology at Columbia said, remarking that Weissman has never been afraid to challenge scientific orthodoxy.

Diabetes NEEDLE

via Scientist Revives Research.

Molecular ‘Key’ To Successful Blood Stem Cell Transplants Discovered

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on April 25, 2009 at 11:10 pm

science

ScienceDaily (Apr. 25, 2009) — University of British Columbia researchers have discovered a “molecular key” that could help increase the success of blood stem cell transplants, a procedure currently used to treat diseases such as leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and aplastic anemia.

During a blood stem cell transplant, donor blood stem cells – which can produce red and white blood cells and platelets – are injected into the recipient to produce new blood. The stem cells then need to travel to the thymus – an organ near the heart – and produce T-cells, a type of white blood cell that orchestrates the body’s immune system.

A common problem with blood stem cell transplants is the failure of stem cells to repopulate the thymus and generate T-cells. Without T-cells the patient is unable to fight infection and post-transplant prognosis is poor.

Now Prof. Hermann Ziltener and his research team at UBC’s Biomedical Research Centre have identified a molecule called S1P that can tell the thymus to “open the gates” and accept more stem cells.

“This discovery gives us a handle on determining whether the thymus will be receptive to migrating stem cells,” says Ziltener, a professor in the Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. “By treating patients with drugs that control S1P, scientists can now manipulate the thymic gates to either open or close.”

The same team had previously identified a number of molecules that function as the thymic gates for migrating stem cells. The new study, published in the April issue of The Journal of Experimental Medicine, is the first to hone in on the “key” molecule that can open the thymic gate.

Next steps in the research include finding the mechanism T-cells in blood use to control S1P formation. Researchers estimate that it would be at least five years before the discovery can be translated into a clinical test

via Molecular ‘Key’ To Successful Blood Stem Cell Transplants Discovered.

See also:

Health & Medicine

* Stem Cells

* Prostate Cancer

* Lymphoma

* Brain Tumor

* Immune System

* Anemia

Reference

* T cell

* Embryonic stem cell

* Somatic cell

* Bone marrow transplant

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