DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘cartilage’

STEM CELL ‘LIVING BANDAGE’ FOR KNEE INJURIES

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 19, 2017 at 4:31 pm

Can we regrow a meniscus with stem cells?  Yes, of course.

  1. stem cells are harvested from the patient’s bone marrow
  2. cells are grown for 2 weeks
  3. cells are seeded onto a membrane scaffold
  4. the manufactured cell bandage is surgically implanted into the tear
  5. the cartilage is sewn up around the bandage to keep it in place

    All five patients had an intact meniscus 12 months post implantation

Stem cell ‘living bandage’ for knee injuries trialled in humans

December 16, 2016
Stem cell ‘living bandage’ for knee injuries trialled in humans
Credit: University of Bristol

A ‘living bandage’ made from stem cells, which could revolutionise the treatment and prognosis of a common sporting knee injury, has been trialled in humans for the first time by scientists at the Universities of Liverpool and Bristol.

Meniscal tears are suffered by over one million people a year in the US and Europe alone and are particularly common in contact sports like football and rugby. 90 per cent or more of tears occur in the white zone of meniscus which lacks a blood supply, making them difficult to repair. Many professional sports players opt to have the torn tissue removed altogether, risking osteoarthritis in later life.

The cell bandage has been developed by Bristol University spin-out company Azellon, and is designed to enable the meniscal tear to repair itself by encouraging cell growth in the affected tissue.

A prototype version of the cell bandage was trialled in five patients, aged between 18 and 45, with white-zone meniscal tears. The trial received funding support from Innovate UK and the promising results have been published today in the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine.

The procedure involved taking , harvested from the patient’s own bone marrow, which were then grown for two weeks before being seeded onto a membrane scaffold that helps to deliver the cells into the injured site. The manufactured cell bandage was then surgically implanted into the middle of the tear and the cartilage was sewn up around the bandage to keep it in place.

All five patients had an intact meniscus 12 months post implantation. By 24 months, three of the five patients retained an intact meniscus and had returned to normal knee functionality whilst the other two patients required surgical removal of the damaged meniscus due to a new tear or return of symptoms.

Professor Anthony Hollander, formerly of Bristol and now Chair of Stem Cell Biology at the University of Liverpool and Founder and Chief Scientific Officer of Azellon, said: “The cell bandage trial results are very encouraging and offer a potential alternative to surgical removal that will repair the damaged tissue and restore full knee function.

“We are currently developing an enhanced version of the cell bandage using donor stem cells, which will reduce the cost of the procedure and remove the need for two operations.”

The cell bandage was produced by the Advanced Therapies Unit at the NHS Blood & Transplant facility in Speke, Liverpool and implanted into patients at Southmead Hospital in Bristol, under the supervision of Professor Ashley Blom, Head of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Bristol.

Professor Blom, from Bristol’s School of Clinical Sciences, commented: “The cell bandage offers an exciting potential new treatment option for surgeons that could particularly benefit younger patients and athletes by reducing the likelihood of early onset osteoarthritis after meniscectomy.”

A spokesperson for Innovate UK said: “Turning into clinical and commercial reality requires close collaboration between businesses, universities, and Hospitals. It’s great to see this inter-disciplinary approach has led to such an exciting outcome from this first-in-human trial.”

Explore further: Pioneering stem cell bandage receives approval for clinical trial

More information: Repair of Torn Avascular Meniscal Cartilage Using Undifferentiated Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From In Vitro Optimization to a First-in-Human Study, , DOI: 10.1002/sctm.16-0199, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sctm.16-0199/abstract

Read more at: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-12-stem-cell-bandage-knee-injuries.html#jCp

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Heads, Shoulders, Knees and Toes

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on October 25, 2016 at 10:17 am

Heads, Shoulders, Knees and Toes

head, shoulders, knees and toes

Building on the revolutionary work of Dr Lima, who used nose stem cells to recover spinal cord injuries:

“Investigators took biopsy specimens that were 6 mm in diameter from the nasal septum, under local anaesthetic.

Then they grew the harvested cells in the lab for two weeks. The cartilage grafts were further prepared and then cut into the right shapes.

Finally, surgeons used the engineered grafts to replace damaged cartilage that was removed.

..Even though the level of repaired tissue appeared to vary among patients and over time, MRI scans at two years showed new tissue developed with similar properties to the original cartilage.

The nine recipients reported improvements in use of their knees and better pain scores compared to before their surgeries.

No side-effects were reported.”

Heads and Knees – Check!
Shoulders and Toes just around the corner.

Spinal Cord Injury and Stem Cells:
https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/2011/02/07/spinal-cord-injury-and-repair-stem-cell-treatments/

Read more:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/knee-repair-nose-1.3814647

CARTILAGE FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on November 4, 2012 at 7:15 pm

DURHAM, N.C. – A team of Duke Medicine researchers has engineered cartilage from induced pluripotent stem cells that were successfully grown and sorted for use in tissue repair and studies into cartilage injury and osteoarthritis.

The finding is reported online Oct. 29, 2012, in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and suggests that induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs, may be a viable source of patient-specific articular cartilage tissue.

“This technique of creating induced pluripotent stem cells – an achievement honored with this year’s Nobel Prize in medicine for Shimya Yamanaka of Kyoto University – is a way to take adult stem cells and convert them so they have the properties of embryonic stem cells,” said Farshid Guilak, PhD, Laszlo Ormandy Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke and senior author of the study.

“Adult stems cells are limited in what they can do, and embryonic stem cells have ethical issues,” Guilak said. “What this research shows in a mouse model is the ability to create an unlimited supply of stem cells that can turn into any type of tissue – in this case cartilage, which has no ability to regenerate by itself.”

Articular cartilage is the shock absorber tissue in joints that makes it possible to walk, climb stairs, jump and perform daily activities without pain. But ordinary wear-and-tear or an injury can diminish its effectiveness and progress to osteoarthritis. Because articular cartilage has a poor capacity for repair, damage and osteoarthritis are leading causes of impairment in older people and often requires joint replacement.

In their study, the Duke researchers, led by Brian O. Diekman, PhD, a post-doctoral associate in orthopaedic surgery, aimed to apply recent technologies that have made iPSCs a promising alternative to other tissue engineering techniques, which use adult stem cells derived from the bone marrow or fat tissue.

One challenge the researchers sought to overcome was developing a uniformly differentiated population of chondrocytes, cells that produce collagen and maintain cartilage, while culling other types of cells that the powerful iPSCs could form.

To achieve that, the researchers induced chondrocyte differentiation in iPSCs derived from adult mouse fibroblasts by treating cultures with a growth medium. They also tailored the cells to express green fluorescent protein only when the cells successfully became chondrocytes. As the iPSCs differentiated, the chondrocyte cells that glowed with the green fluorescent protein were easily identified and sorted from the undesired cells.

The tailored cells also produced greater amounts of cartilage components, including collagen, and showed the characteristic stiffness of native cartilage, suggesting they would work well repairing cartilage defects in the body.

“This was a multi-step approach, with the initial differentiation, then sorting, and then proceeding to make the tissue,” Diekman said. “What this shows is that iPSCs can be used to make high quality cartilage, either for replacement tissue or as a way to study disease and potential treatments.”

Diekman and Guilak said the next phase of the research will be to use human iPSCs to test the cartilage-growing technique.

“The advantage of this technique is that we can grow a continuous supply of cartilage in a dish,” Guilak said. “In addition to cell-based therapies, iPSC technology can also provide patient-specific cell and tissue models that could be used to screen for drugs to treat osteoarthritis, which right now does not have a cure or an effective therapy to inhibit cartilage loss.”

In addition to Guilak and Diekman, study authors include Nicolas Christoforou; Vincent P. Willard; Alex Sun; Johannah Sanchez-Adams; and Kam W. Leong.

The National Institutes of Health (AR50245, AR48852, AG15768, AR48182, Training Grant T32AI007217) and the Arthritis Foundation funded the study.

By Duke Medicine News and Communications – http://www.DukeHealth.org

World Cup Soccer Players Could Benefit from Stem Cell “Repair Kit” – twitter moms: the influential moms network

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on June 24, 2010 at 12:26 pm

A decade ago, stem cells and World Cup soccer would have been considered an unusual pairing yet today they can easily be found on the same playing field. Recent reports indicate that some players in top-tiered soccer leagues are storing their infants’ stem cells for possible use as a “repair kit” for future injuries.

http://rlisu.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/149.jpg

“As a footballer, if you’re prone to injury it can mean the end of your career, so having your stem cells – a repair kit if you like – on hand makes sense,” said one unnamed Premier League player from England in a 2006 story in the London Times. “We decided to store our baby’s stem cells for possible future therapeutic reasons, both for our children and possibly for myself.”

Stem cells defined as ‘mesenchymal’ stem cells are of increasing interest to the field of regenerative medicine because they are able to become many different types of cells including bone, cartilage, tendon and more. One example of a possible application for these cells would be for the treatment of damaged knee cartilage, which is a very common athletic injury that can occur while playing sports or exercising. As a result of the injury, the joint becomes inflamed and painful. Injection of stem cells can potentially lead to cartilage rejuvenation.

via World Cup Soccer Players Could Benefit from Stem Cell “Repair Kit” – twitter moms: the influential moms network.

Djourou shocker

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on September 7, 2009 at 7:38 pm

Sunday, 6 September 2009

Djourou shocker

The bad news about Johan Djourou’s knee means that he is going to be out of action for around 6 months. I suspect the problem with Johan’s knee is an osteochondral defect, I shall try to explain this to those of you without the medical knowledge. An osteochondral defect means an area where the smooth joint lining, the cartilage, has been damaged, this is different to the meniscus of the knee which is the cup shaped bits which are made of fibrocartilage.

If Johan had torn his meniscus then one would expect him to have it tidied up with key hole surgery and he’d be back relatively quickly. Either he is having a repair to his meniscus which would take a lot longer to get back to football from, or he has an area of damaged cartilage, an osteochondral defect. There are different treatments for osteochondral defects and none of them are perfect by any means.

One can try to regrow a sort of cartilage in the hole by ‘microfracture’ treatment, one can transplant cartilage from the patient or from elsewhere, plus there are some emerging stem cell treatments. All require a substantial period of rehabilitation to allow the new cartilage to bed down as it were. Good luck and a speedy recovery Johan, it’s a shame to lose such a talented young player when he was showing such signs of developing into a very solid centre back.

via Another Arsenal Blog: Djourou shocker, honest Wayne and BBC inadequacy.

Diseased Cartilage Harbors Unique Migratory Progenitor Cells

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on April 3, 2009 at 11:19 pm

jointsScienceDaily (Apr. 2, 2009) — A new study finds previously unidentified fibrocartilage-forming progenitor cells in degenerating, diseased human cartilage, but not in cartilage from healthy joints. The research, published in the April 3rd issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell, provides valuable insights into the reparative potential of cartilage and may lead to development of regenerative therapies for arthritis.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an incurable degenerative disease caused by a progressive deterioration of the cartilage that cushions and protects joints. “OA is the most common musculoskeletal disease in the elderly and is likely to be the fourth-leading cause of disability by the year 2020,” explains senior study author Dr. Nicolai Miosge from Georg August University in Goettingen, Germany. “This is our motivation for the further exploration of OA treatment options, including regenerative cell biological therapy.”…

via Diseased Cartilage Harbors Unique Migratory Progenitor Cells.

More About Stem Cells and PRP For Osteoarthritis

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 11, 2009 at 12:43 am

versalius-skeletonMore About Stem Cells and PRP For Osteoarthritis – By Nathan Wei – BharatBhasha.com

A number of methods have been used to repair of cartilage damage. The first is osteochondral transplantation, which involves taking a plug of cartilage from a non-weight bearing area and placing it into a defect in a weight-bearing region. The second is microfracture. In this procedure, a surgeon will drill a number of small (2 mm diameter) holes into the cartilage until bleeding from the bone marrow occurs. The theory is that stem cells from the bone marrow will “leak out” and heal the cartilage damage. The final method is the use of autologous stem cell implantation with or without the assistance of a scaffold matrix to hold the cells.

The problem is that all these techniques have been used to treat focal cartilage lesions and not osteoarthritis. Also, recuperation from the first two procedures (chondral plug and microfracture) is exceedingly long.

Osteoarthritis lesions are generally large and unconfined and as a result may not hold onto chondrocytes (early cartilage cells) long enough for them to repair the damage.

Of the three methods described above, the one that seems to be garnering the most interest lately is autologous stem cells.

Results from a number of uncontrolled studies seem to show that stem cells can be harnessed to repair and possibly regenerate cartilage damage in OA.

There are three types of stem cells that have been used in research. The first type is embryonic stem cells. These have the advantage of being the cells that probably can grow the quickest. Unfortunately, there is the theoretical possibility that there might be unregulated growth, ie. cancer. Also, some have raised ethical concerns.

The second type is donor mesenchymal stem cells. These are cells that are obtained from a human volunteer, and then grown in a lab. They have the advantage of numbers. The concentration of stem cells can reach anywhere from 20-50 million stem cells. The disadvantage is the possibility of rejection reaction and also the possibility of transmission of infection.

The final type is autologous stem cells. These are cells harvested from the patient. A large amount of bone marrow is aspirated from the iliac crest of the hip. The bone marrow is then concentrated using a special technique in order to obtain the stem cells.

via Health And Fitness | More About Stem Cells and PRP For Osteoarthritis :: By Nathan Wei | BharatBhasha.com.

Bristol University | News from the University | A stem cell bandage for your knee

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on February 18, 2009 at 1:08 pm

A stem cell bandage for your knee

knee-and-stem-cells

knee-and-adult-stem-cell-"bandage"

17 February 2009

Back in December 2003, re:search reported on the work being done by Anthony Hollander, Professor of Rheumatology and Tissue Engineering in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, who was pioneering regenerative medicine techniques in order to replace cartilage in the knees of osteoarthritis sufferers. Five years later, re:search reviews the remarkable developments that have occurred in that time.

Building on his previous work, Hollander and his team, which included Dr Wael Kafienah and Dr John Tarlton, announced in 2005 they had, for the first time ever, successfully grown human cartilage from a patient’s own bone marrow stem cells. It took just over a month to grow the cells into a half-inch length of cartilage and tests showed that the laboratory-grown cartilage was of a higher quality than any previous attempts at tissue engineering. Now the challenge was how to implant the engineered cartilage into the knee and get it to integrate with the surrounding tissue. The idea was to use cells to drive integration of one tissue with another, with the long-term aim of developing a way of fixing and integrating engineered cartilage with natural cartilage, literally ‘knitting’ the two surfaces together with cells.

via Bristol University | News from the University | A stem cell bandage for your knee.

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