DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘RESEARCH’

STEM CELLS MAKE VAGINAS!!

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 11, 2014 at 12:44 pm

MAKING VAGINAS FROM STEM CELLS, YES…ENTIRE VAGINAS, WORKING VAGINAS, ANATOMICALLY CORRECT IN FORM AND FUNCTION. WOW!

Georgia O'Keeffe

Georgia O’Keeffe

“Four women have had new vaginas grown in the laboratory and implanted by doctors in the US.

A tissue sample and a biodegradable scaffold were used to grow vaginas in the right size and shape for each woman as well as being a tissue match.

They all reported normal levels of “desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction” and painless intercourse.

Experts said the study, published in the Lancet, was the latest example of the power of regenerative medicine.”
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-26885335

Vitamin C boosts the reprogramming of adult cells into stem cells « Health Research Report

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on January 24, 2014 at 8:05 am

November 8, 2012

Vitamin C boosts the reprogramming of adult cells into stem cells 1

http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/var/plain_site/storage/images/publications/food-beverage-nutrition/nutraingredients-usa.com/research/vitamin-c-rda-should-be-doubled-says-linus-pauling-institute-researcher/6914603-1-eng-GB/Vitamin-C-RDA-should-be-doubled-says-Linus-Pauling-Institute-researcher_strict_xxl.jpg

Famous for its antioxidant properties and role in tissue repair, vitamin C is touted as beneficial for illnesses ranging from the common cold to cancer and perhaps even for slowing the aging process. Now, a study published online on December 24th by Cell Press in the journal Cell Stem Cell uncovers an unexpected new role for this natural compound: facilitating the generation of embryonic-like stem cells from adult cells.

Over the past few years, we have learned that adult cells can be reprogrammed into cells with characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells by turning on a select set of genes. Although the reprogrammed cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have tremendous potential for regenerative medicine, the conversion is extremely inefficient.

“The low efficiency of the reprogramming process has hampered progress with this technology and is indicative of how little we understand it. Further, this process is most challenging in human cells, raising a significant barrier for producing iPSCs and serious concerns about the quality of the cells that are generated,” explains senior study author Dr. Duanqing Pei from the South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Pei and colleagues measured the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS during reprogramming and discovered a potential link between high ROS and low reprogramming efficiency. They became particularly interested in antioxidants, hypothesizing that they might suppress ROS and cell senescence, which seems to be a major roadblock for the generation of iPSCs.

The researchers found that adding vitamin C, an essential nutrient that is abundant in citrus fruits, enhanced iPSC generation from both mouse and human cells. Vitamin C accelerated gene expression changes and promoted a more efficient transition to the fully reprogrammed state. Somewhat to their surprise, they found that other antioxidants do not have the same effect, but vitamin C does seem to act at least in part through slowing cell senescence.

“Our results highlight a simple way to improve iPSC generation and provide additional insight into the mechanistic basis of reprogramming,” concludes Dr. Pei. “It is also of interest that a vitamin with long-suspected anti-aging effects has such a potent influence on reprogramming, which can be considered a reversal of the aging process at the cellular level. It is likely that our work may stimulate further research in this area as well.”

via Vitamin C boosts the reprogramming of adult cells into stem cells « Health Research Report.

STEM CELLS FIX HEART 5 YEARS AGO

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on November 17, 2013 at 9:18 am

AN UPDATE ON JAMES 11/17/2013

 “i have been doing manual labor with my dads company the heart is doing well im getting in better shape every week.

im to the piont now i can carry 5 gallon buckets of concrete up hills lol, pretty cool still
in a few days it will be my 6 year anniversary and still no reversion!!”
success

2006

Case Study: James Eilert, 34 years old, presents with a “widowmaker” [100 % blockage of the left ascending coronary artery]. His ejection fraction (EF – volume of blood his heart pumps out) was between 20 and 25 percent (55 is normal). His cardiologist told him he has about 5 years left to live.  James left the country in order to receive Adult Stem Cell treatment.

1 1/2 weeks after treatment – Echocardiogram revealed that his completely dead apex was beating again.

6 months after treatment – Sidewalls of heart beat normally.  Septum went from 100% damage to 30% damage. Cardiologist confirms James’ heart is 50 percent more elastic than the year before Repair Stem Cell therapy.

6 – 9 months after treatment – James’ total dead heart tissue is down to about 10%.  EF is up to 50%!

4 years later – James’ heart and health continue to improve. He continues to push himself and his limits.  He runs regularly, works 7 days a week and can bike 20 miles .

Summation:

James went from Class III congestive heart failure to Class I with an ejection fraction (EF) increase from ~20-25% to his current EF of 50%.  His doctors have lifted all restrictions and limitations on his physical activities.

James is only one of many adult stem cell treatment success stories…

November 17, 2011 Update:

A letter from James.  How is he doing today?

“its amazing how fast reality can change, the differences that you see in others that they dont notice themselves. the changes in attitudes and perceptions that the “new” was never in doubt and is accepted as if it were always true. the new studies showing the truth about adult stem cell heart treatments the last few months have proven that we the few pioneers that have made huge financial sacrifices to try and save our lives were not crazy, stupid or otherwise deluded!

it was a risk and for the last four years despite proving over and over by running uphill on so many treadmills my improvments were basically ignored by cardiologists, general practitioners, and even my own wife and stepdaughters.

that i am happy to say has changed!!!!

i went to see my doctor yesterday, he told me to start heavy weight training and interval running, to help me lose weight better. what was differnet? nobody has told me to do that since my heart attack, there was no mention of taking it easy, in fact before i was told to only do light weights and take it easy, watch my heart rate, dont push past 150bpm ever.

it was like i never even had a heart attack.

i asked in disbelief if i should watch my heart rate, keep it a safe zone. the answer “no, stick to 85 to 90 percent and youll be fine, your exercise scores and echos show you can handle it”

vindication, no longer an unexplained anamoly, just a patient that responded better than average to a new treatment – like it was always true in thier minds, never a doubt.

what a feeling!! it has taken ten years to go from the “fringe” to the mainstream - i look forward to getting treatments here in america, and i’m so happy i took the risk that now ensures i will be alive to reap the benifits when it becomes available here!

have a good day david – it nice to be right once in a while!
jim eilert

Congratulations as always Jim!  On your heart recovery success and on having the courage to be a pioneer with an adult stem cell treatment that was cutting edge around the world 5 years ago and is still barely know today in the USA! – David

Stem cell scarring aids recovery from spinal cord injury

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on November 5, 2013 at 2:45 pm

Scarring created by stem cells at the site of spinal cord injury actually assists in healing, instead of impeding it as previously thought! -dg

Stem Cell Scarring Aids Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury

Oct. 31, 2013 — In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show that the scar tissue formed by stem cells after a spinal cord injury does not impair recovery; in fact, stem cell scarring confines the damage. The findings, which are published in the scientific journal Science, indicate that scar tissue prevents the lesion from expanding and helps injured nerve cells survive…

Stem cell scarring aids recovery from spinal cord injury.

MMR VACCINE AND AUTISM – THE SCIENCE

In ALL ARTICLES, OFF THE BEATEN PATH on April 30, 2013 at 6:56 pm

autism scientific america

TRYING TO GET A HANDLE ON THE MMR/VACCINE CONTROVERSY:

I don’t know what causes Autism but I believe in education, knowledge and research.

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Baby monkeys given standard doses of popular vaccines develop autism symptoms

“…a macaque monkey (primates) study of the very same vaccines given to children during 1994-1999, i.e., the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine and several Thimerosal mercury-containing vaccines injected into children during that time frame when the autism spectrum disorder skyrocketed.”

The original Study here:

Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study   http://www.ane.pl/pdf/7020.pdf

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WHAT ARE THE ADVERSE REACTIONS FROM MMR VACCINES?
http://www.merck.com/product/usa/pi_circulars/m/mmr_ii/mmr_ii_pi.pdf
(The warnings from the manufacturer are scary enough, even if it doesn’t cause autism.)

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WORLD STUDIES ON MMR/AUTISM:

Here is a list of 28 studies from around the world from (mercola.com) that support Dr. Wakefield’s controversial findings:

  1. The Journal of Pediatrics November 1999; 135(5):559-63
  2. The Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 138(3): 366-372
  3. Journal of Clinical Immunology November 2003; 23(6): 504-517
  4. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2005 
  5. Brain, Behavior and Immunity 1993; 7: 97-103
  6. Pediatric Neurology 2003; 28(4): 1-3
  7. Neuropsychobiology 2005; 51:77-85
  8. The Journal of Pediatrics May 2005;146(5):605-10
  9. Autism Insights 2009; 1: 1-11
  10. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology February 2009; 23(2): 95-98
  11. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 2009:21(3): 148-161
  12. Journal of Child Neurology June 29, 2009; 000:1-6
  13. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders March 2009;39(3):405-13
  14. Medical Hypotheses August 1998;51:133-144.
  15. Journal of Child Neurology July 2000; ;15(7):429-35
  16. Lancet. 1972;2:883–884.
  17. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia January-March 1971;1:48-62
  18. Journal of Pediatrics March 2001;138:366-372.
  19. Molecular Psychiatry 2002;7:375-382.
  20. American Journal of Gastroenterolgy April 2004;598-605.
  21. Journal of Clinical Immunology November 2003;23:504-517.
  22. Neuroimmunology April 2006;173(1-2):126-34.
  23. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol Biol. Psychiatry December 30 2006;30:1472-1477.
  24. Clinical Infectious Diseases September 1 2002;35(Suppl 1):S6-S16
  25. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2004;70(11):6459-6465
  26. Journal of Medical Microbiology October 2005;54:987-991
  27. Archivos venezolanos de puericultura y pediatría 2006; Vol 69 (1): 19-25.
  28. Gastroenterology. 2005:128 (Suppl 2);Abstract-303

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Dr. Wakefield’s Latest: MMR And Autism

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2008/01/02/mmr-and-autism-part-two.aspx

References/Notes

1. Plotkin SA, Mortimer EA. (eds.) Vaccines, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1994. This collection of articles has a wealth of medical information about vaccines.

2. See details at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/registry.

3. “The effect of routine infant vaccination on acute disease incidence may not be apparent for 20-30 years because currently most infections occur among young adults.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 44, No. 30, Aug. 4, 1995.

4. “In a sudden reversal of health policy, France has decided to suspend Hepatitis B vaccinations in secondary schools because of fears that the vaccine causes neurological disorders.” New York Times, Oct. 3, 1998.

5. ACIP meeting minutes, Feb. 1998. Available from CDC.

6. The Economist 1998;344(8044):95(3). It suggested possible correlations between vaccines and other diseases such as asthma.

7. Patton CV, Sawicki DS. Basic Methods of Policy Analysis, Prentice Hall, 1993.

8. ACIP Policies and Procedures, July 1998. Available from the CDC or from Some other supporting evidence on immunization policy is also there.

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Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine as a Potential Cause of Encephalitis (Brain Inflammation) in Children

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2008/01/02/mmr-vaccine-part-three.aspx

References for this article:

1. Statements by Bernard Rimland, PhD, were given at a conference on autism, sponsored by the Autism Research Institute in Chicago, June, 1996.

2. Information from the Developmental Delay Registry, 6701 Fairfax Road, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, Tel. 301652-2263.

3. From a paper distributed by Dawbarns Law Firm, Bank House, Kingrs Staithe Square, Lingrs Lynn, Norfolk PE30 IRD, Great Britain, Tel. 01553. 764373, Fax 01553-765226.

4. Singh VJ et al., Antibodies to myelin basic protein in children with autistic behavior, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 7, 97-1203, 1993.

5. Kumar S & Miller LK, Effects of serial passage of Autographs Californica nuclear polyhidrosis virus in cell culture. Virus Research, Vol. 7, 335-349, 1987.

6. Jahnke U et al., Sequence homology between certain viral proteins and proteins related to encephalomyelitis and neuritis, Science, Vol. 29, 282-284, July 19, 1985,

7. Presentation by Dr. Vijendra Singh, August 16, 1997, Allegro School, Cedar Knolls, New Jersey.

8. Scott HD et al., Physician reporting of adverse reactions: results of the Rhode Island adverse drug reaction reporting project, JAMA, Vol. 263, No. 13, 1785-1788, April 4, 1990.

9. Reporting side effects: signals or noise? (Editorial), ibid, page 1823.

10. Gupta S et al., Dysregulated immune system in children with autism; beneficial effects of intravenous globulin on autistic characteristics, J ofAutism and Develop Disorders, Vol. 26, No. 4, 439-452, 1996. (In this article on page 450, it is stated, “We theorized that the high titers of rubella antibody … present in mothers of children with autism would be transplacentally transferred and may persist for a prolonged period in the child. When such a child gets MMR immunization, rubella antigen may complex with preexisting antibodies and such complexes might play a role in pathogenesis of autistic features.”)

11. Dublin L & Lotka A, Twenty-five Years ofHealth Progress, New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1937, page 48.

12. Dublin L, Health Progress 1936-1945, New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1948, page 12.

13. Vaccination. 100 Years of Orthodox Research Shows that Vaccines Represent a Medical Assault on the Immune System, Viera Scheibner, PhD., 1993 (from pages 33 to 49 the author extensively reviews the Swedish and Japanese experiences with the pertussis vaccine, book available from New Atlantean Press, P.O. Box 9638-925, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504).

14. Garenne M et al., Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines; a prospective study in Senegal, Lancet, Vol. 338, 903-907, October 12, 1991.

15. Hussey GD et al., The effect of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines on immune responses in infants, J of Infect Diseases, Vol. 173, 1320-1326, 1996.

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Italian court reignites MMR vaccine debate after award over child with autism

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/italian-court-reignites-mmr-vaccine-debate-after-award-over-child-with-autism-7858596.html?origin=internalSearch

Original Articles in Italian:

MMR e Autismo: il caso Wakefield come emblema del “COVER-UP scientifico”

… per tutte sulla vicenda Wakefield e la correlazione fra MMR e Autismo. Innanzitutto vi segnaliamo il pregevole lavoro che il sito … i n discussione la procedura di valutazione dei vaccini MMR in Gran Bretagna fin dal lontano 1987 e conferma la sostanziale assenza di …

News – thinknew – 28/09/2012 – 08:05 – 0 comments – 1 allegato

MMR: la Vittoria di una Madre

… apparso il 16 giugno 2012 su “Daily Mail” con il titolo “MMR: A mother’s victory. The vast majority of doctors say there is no link …

Articolo – thinknew – 24/09/2012 – 13:17 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Ascolta il Silenzio – Film

… i possibili legami tra la somministrazione del vaccino MMR, la malattia intestinale cronica e l’autismo.   Nonostante tutte le …

Argomento di discussione del forum – yellowbrain – 26/03/2013 – 19:58 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Re: VACCINI OMEOPATICI

… 7 th November 1997″ , che riporta : ” MMR e SSPE ****** In una conferenza negli Stati Uniti, … potrebbe essere utile. ” originale: “MMR and SSPE****** at a conference in the US had suggested that the measles …

Commento – Lucas – 16/01/2013 – 00:19 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Chi ha paura dell’uomo nero?

… di Valentino ( http://www.comilva.org/danno_da_vaccino/mmr_vittoria_di_madre ) poi dà particolarmente fastidio perché sbugiarda …

News – thinknew – 28/01/2013 – 11:35 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Anonimo:Autismo e vaccino di MMR (orecc.morb.rosolia)

… sul collegamento di tale malattia con il vaccino di MMR (orecchioni – morbillo – rosolia). di: VICKY COLLINS Gordon Bell, … molto stretta tra l’autismo ed il vaccino di MMR(orecchioni – morbillo – rosolia) indicando che i bambini autistici … volta presenti a livelli così elevati, causa il vaccino MMR, scatenano in un organismo così debole nel sistema immunitario come quello …

Argomento di discussione del forum – OldForum – 30/07/2002 – 00:00 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Anonimo:Il legame tra MMR e autismo.

… prove schiaccianti relative al legame fra la vaccinazione MMR (orecchioni – morbillo – rosolia) l’autismo e le malattie intestinali nei … urgentemente nuovi parametri sulla sicurezza del vaccino MMR - la vaccinazione combinata per orecchioni, morbillo e rosolia che viene …

Argomento di discussione del forum – OldForum – 02/08/2002 – 00:00 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Londra. 40 bambini uccisi dal vaccino MMR

… (Discussioni Libere) …

Argomento di discussione del forum – alsa – 11/12/2010 – 11:50 – 0 comments – 0 allegati

Anonimo:ProQuad il nuovo vaccino MMR+ sicuro.

… bambini sono stati sottoposti ad iniezione del vaccino di Mmr (morbillo parotite rosolia), e una seconda iniezione di Varivax …

Argomento di discussione del forum – OldForum – 15/04/2003 – 00:00 – 3 comments – 0 allegati

Richiamo vaccinazione MMR

Ho appena scoperto il vostro forum e ne approfitto subito per chiedervi un’opinione: ho ricevuto la lettera della ASL (provincia di Milano) in cui mi invitano a presentarmi con il mio bambino di 6 anni per il richiamo di Morbillo-Rosolia-Parotite. Allegan …

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RELATED ARTICLES:

FAKE AND FRAUDULENT SCIENCE

CDC VACCINE COVER UP – MERCURY ACTUALLY DOES CAUSE AUTISM?

AUTISM RETROSPECTIVE

Letters from Laura #1 – Autism, GI issues, chronic ear infections, breast cancer and Jenny McCarthy

AUTISM/ASPERGER’S + STEM CELLS

PARENTS WHO WILL STOP AT NOTHING TO HEAL THEIR OWN

In ALL ARTICLES, OFF THE BEATEN PATH on April 24, 2013 at 11:00 am

Dedicated to the amazing women (and men) who are doing everything in their power to heal their children…

Do not confuse them for a distracted and solitary parent sitting alone in a dark corner on a laptop, sipping a spritzer and dangling a toe into stem cell treatments.

These are parents who are researching for years, they network and talk to everyone they can get their hands on, they create pages and sites and media campaigns, they compare data with each other and they do it better than a super computer, more relentlessly than a pit-bull and they do not give up and do not surrender.

They are intense and even fanatical researchers with passion, drive, motivation, education and intelligence and they are going to change the entire stem cell industry from the inside out.  You can love them or hate them but do NOT get in their way.  They are blind to bureaucracy, oblivious to obstacles and dismissive of despair.  Their engines run on the nova hot burning jet fuel of a parent’s love for their child, they wield weapons built on research and science and wear impervious suits of armor forged in hope.

They are stem cell moms and they are organized and aggressive and nothing will stand in their way.

They are…

THE STEM CELL MOMFIA

wgun4

STEM CELLS 101 – short

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on April 11, 2013 at 12:50 am

Transplanted adult dermal stem cells / Cellule...

STEM CELLS 101 – short

ADULT STEM CELL = ASC

  • SOURCE/DERIVED FROM•comes from
    blood, umbilical cords, bone marrow, placenta fat tissue, muscle, nasal
    neurological, breast milk, menstruation, dental pulp, lungs (new source!) and many more
  • PURPOSE IN BODY•they are the body’s natural healing cells
  • OBSTACLES+SIDE EFFECTS•~zero problems (virtually zero side effects)
  • TREATMENT HISTORY•used in bone marrow transplants to treat cancer for 40 years
  • TREATMENT HISTORY•can currently treat 130+ diseases safely and effectively (CP, MS, Autism, Diabetes, CHF, PAD, etc)

EMBRYONIC STEM CELL = ESC

  • SOURCE/DERIVED FROM•comes from embryos
  • PURPOSE IN BODY•split for 7 weeks until you have a fetus the size of a thumbnail
  • OBSTACLES+SIDE EFFECTS•they create
    cysts and tumors, rejection requires immunosuppressive drugs for the ill
    patient, they carry the genetic anomalies of the donor, etc
  • TREATMENT HISTORY•can currently treat zero diseases, probably need to cure cancer first to use them

INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL = iPSC (“Embryonic Stem Cell Lite”)

  • SOURCE/DERIVED FROM•comes from regular adult cells like skin cells that are then transformed by scientists into stem cells
  • PURPOSE IN BODY•to be a skin cell or other tissue
  • OBSTACLES+SIDE EFFECTS•they create
    cysts and tumors, rejection requires immunosuppressive drugs for the ill
    patient, they carry the genetic anomalies of the donor…
  • TREATMENT HISTORY•no treatments to date, probably need to cure cancer first to use them

AMNIOTIC STEM CELLS HEAL INTESTINAL DISORDER

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 27, 2013 at 9:00 am

shutterstock_20325178

Amniotic stem cells heal intestinal disorder that afflicts premature babies

A new study published in GUT (An International Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology) has shown that amniotic fluid stem cells can reverse intestinal damage in rats caused by necrotising enterocolitis — an often fatal disorder that afflicts premature babies.

Paolo De Coppi had already proved that amniotic fluid could be reprogrammed in a similar way to how we reprogram embryonic stem cells, and without introducing potentially damaging genes to instigate the transformation (how adult cells are made pluripotent). Though not quite as versatile as the embryonic version, De Coppi showed that they could be converted into liver, bone and nerve cells.

What’s interesting about this latest study is that the stem cells calmed the intestinal inflammation, healed and reversed damage done to the gut far better than bone marrow stem cells (used in a rate control group), and in an unexpected way. After being injected, the cells travelled to the tiny villi that line the intestinal walls and absorb nutrients, where it then released an unknown substance that triggered progenitor cells to calm the inflammation and instigate tissue and villi regrowth. The team is unsure exactly how it released a growth factor to kick the progenitor cells into action, but it’s hoping further studies could clear this up — that knowledge could then be used to develop drugs that replicate the same action.

In the meantime, De Coppi says, “we hope that stem cells found in amniotic fluid will be used more widely in therapies and in research, particularly for the treatment of congenital malformations”.

Necrotising enterocolitis is common in premature babies, with inflammation rapidly leading to tissue death and a perforated intestine if antibiotics have no effect. At that point, an operation is the only option and these have a 70 percent survival rate due to related risks of surgery at such a young age, and can leave infants with a shortened intestine and trouble eating for the rest of their lives. This latest study gives hope for an injectable, non-invasive solution.

Stem cells have already been shown to have some incredible properties for regenerative medicine — most recently baboon embryonic stem cells were used to repair damaged arteries. However, due the ethical grey area embryonic experiments reside in, progress has inevitably been slower, with the first official human trials only recently beginning to take place. Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid have huge potential, but would mainly still rely on donors given the impracticalities of storing fluid from every birth. Nevertheless, according to estimates published in a 2005 study, just 150 donors would provide a match for 38 percent of the population.

De Coppi, who in 2010 made headlines when he built an 11-year-old boy a trachea replacement from his own bone marrow stem cells, is currently raising funding for his research into building rejection-free transplants from stem cells.

http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-03/25/amniotic-fluid

Image: Shutterstock

Related articles

SCIENCE FICTION COMES ALIVE WITH ORGANS GROWN IN A LAB

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on March 26, 2013 at 9:00 am

032213bodyparts2_512x288

Building a complex human organ in the lab is no longer a dream of science fiction. At London’s Royal Free Hospital, a team of 30 scientists is manufacturing a variety of body parts, including windpipes, noses and ears. WSJ’s Gautam Naik reports. Photo: Gareth Phillips

Science Fiction Comes Alive as Researchers Grow Organs in Lab

MADRID—Reaching into a stainless steel tray, Francisco Fernandez-Aviles lifted up a gray, rubbery mass the size of a fat fist.  It was a human cadaver heart that had been bathed in industrial detergents until its original cells had been washed away and all that was left was what scientists call the scaffold.  Next, said Dr. Aviles, “We need to make the heart come alive.”

Inside a warren of rooms buried in the basement of Gregorio Marañón hospital here, Dr. Aviles and his team are at the sharpest edge of the bioengineering revolution that has turned the science-fiction dream of building replacement parts for the human body into a reality.  Since a laboratory in North Carolina made a bladder in 1996, scientists have built increasingly more complex organs. There have been five windpipe replacements so far. A London researcher, Alex Seifalian, has transplanted lab-grown tear ducts and an artery into patients. He has made an artificial nose he expects to transplant later this year in a man who lost his nose to skin cancer.

“The work has been extraordinarily pioneering,” said Sir Roy Calne, an 82-year-old British surgeon who figured out in the 1950s how to use drugs to prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs.

Now, with the quest to build a heart, researchers are tackling the most complex organ yet. The payoff could be huge, both medically and financially, because so many people around the world are afflicted with heart disease. Researchers see a multi billion dollar market developing for heart parts that could repair diseased hearts and clogged arteries.

In additional to the artificial nose, Dr. Seifalian is making cardiovascular body parts. He sees a time when scientists would grow the structures needed for artery bypass procedures instead of taking a vein from another part the body. As part of a clinical trial, Dr. Seifalian plans to transplant a bio-engineered coronary artery into a person later this year. His employer, University College London, has designated a person to oversee any future commercialization of it and other man-made organs.

The development of lab-built body parts is being spurred by a shortage of organ donors amid rising demand for transplants. Also, unlike patients getting transplants, recipients of lab-built organs won’t have to take powerful anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. That’s because the bio-engineered organs are built with the patients’ own cells.

Until the late 1980s, few scientists believed it would be possible to make human organs because it was a struggle to grow human cells in the laboratory. The task became easier once scientists figured out the chemicals—known as growth factors—that the body itself uses to promote cellular growth.

Scientists started out growing simple organs. In 1999, Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C., implanted lab-grown bladders into the first of several children with severely dysfunctional bladders. The organs have continued to function well for several years. Dr. Atala’s team now is trying to grow a whole range of bio-engineered parts, from simple blood vessels to human livers.

Some of the most complex work is under way at Dr. Seifalian’s laboratory.   A 56-year-old native of Iran, Dr. Seifalian started out as a nuclear physicist, and became interested in medical uses of nuclear technology. That ultimately led him to bioengineering.  In 2011, Dr. Seifalian made a windpipe from a patient’s cells. It was used to replace the cancerous windpipe of the patient, saving his life, his surgeon has said.

Dr. Seifalian and 30 scientists now seek to build a larynx, ears, noses, urethras and bile ducts  Most human organs get their form from an internal scaffolding of collagen and other proteins. Scientists struggled for years to find a replacement material that was strong and flexible and yet wouldn’t be rejected by the bodyEventually, they homed in on a couple of high-tech materials made from plant fibers, resins and other substances. Dr. Seifalian said he uses a material that is modeled on the honeycomb structure of a butterfly’s wing. The material, a so-called nanocomposite, is resistant to infectious bacteria and has pores that are the right size to hold cells.  “The material has to be accepted by the body, but it also has to be easy to manipulate into different shapes, different strengths,” said Dr. Seifalian.

The nose in the jar was closely modeled on the nose of a 53-year-old Briton. With the help of imaging scans and a glass mold designed by an artist, researchers first fabricated a replica of the original nose. The patient was asked if he wanted a slight deviation in his septum to be straightened out, but he turned down the offer, according to Dr. Seifalian.  The researchers poured the material into the artist’s mold. They added salt and sugar. That created holes in the material and gave it a spongy, porous feel, just like the real thing.  The key to all the lab-built organs are stem cells, found in human bone marrow, fat and elsewhere. Stem cells can be transformed into other tissues of the body, making them the basic building blocks for any organ.

In the case of the nose, stem cells extracted from the patient’s fat tissue were added to the artist’s mold, along with chemicals that control cell development. The stem cells sat inside the pores of the lab-made organ and gradually differentiated into cells that make cartilage.  However, the nose was missing a crucial piece: skin.  This posed a substantial hurdle. No one has made natural human skin from scratch. Dr. Seifalian’s idea: to implant the nose under the skin of the patient’s forehead in the hope that skin tissue there would automatically sheath the nose.

 nose-growing-on-arm-omg

But the patient objected, and for good reason: The implanted nose would have to sit inside his forehead for weeks or even months. In the end, Dr. Seifalian chose a less obtrusive approach. The bio-engineered nose was implanted under the patient’s forearm.  The team now is using imaging equipment to keep tabs on whether the necessary blood vessels, skin and cartilage are forming in the right way. “We’ll have to also make sure there’s no infection,” Dr. Seifalian said in late November, on the day of the patient’s surgery.  If the skin graft works, surgeons will remove the nose from the arm and attach it to the patient’s face. Dr. Seifalian will then apply the right chemicals to convert the man’s stem cells into epithelial cells, a common type of tissue found in the nose and in the lining of other organs. The epithelial cells will be inserted into the nose.  As a final step, surgeons will connect blood vessels from the face to the site of the new nose to provide a steady flow of nourishment for the growing cells. “The whole process could take six months,” said Dr. Seifalian. He estimates the cost of making the nose in the lab is about $40,000, but the patient isn’t being charged because the doctors and scientists are either donating their time or working on this as part of their research.

Dr. Seifalian said the new nose could restore some sense of smell to the patient, but its main benefit will be cosmetic. He held up a jar full of early-stage lab-made noses, and another filled with early-stage ears.

“We’re actually in the process of making a synthetic face,” he said. From a cosmetic point of view, “if you can make the ear and the nose, there’s not much left.”  Regenerating a nose would be a striking achievement; creating a complex organ like the heart would be historic. A team led by Spain’s Dr. Aviles is trying to get there first.

Dr. Aviles trained as a cardiologist but became frustrated with the difficulty of treating patients with advanced heart disease. The only option for the worst cases was a heart transplant, and there was a shortage of hearts. Spain has the highest donor rate in the world, yet Dr. Aviles said that only about 10% of patients who need a heart transplant get one.

He was approached in 2009 by a U.S. scientist, Doris Taylor, who had already grown a beating rat heart in the lab while at the University of Minnesota. Instead of using a man-made scaffold, Dr. Taylor had used the scaffolding from an actual rat heart as the starting point. She believed the same technique was crucial for making a working human heart. She was attracted to Spain because the higher donor rate meant that more hearts unsuitable for transplant could be used for experiments.

Dr. Aviles and about 10 colleagues began their human-heart experiments crammed into a small storage room at the hospital. In 2010, a sparkling new lab opened. It has two large freezers with human cells and human hearts, and a dozen stainless steel sinks containing pig hearts immersed in a colorless liquid.  Growing a heart is much harder than, say, growing a windpipe, because the heart is so big and has several types of cells, including those that beat, those that form blood vessels, and those that help conduct electrical signals. For a long time, scientists didn’t know how to make all the cells grow in the right place and in the right order.

The problem had been cracked by Dr. Taylor. She said that when human stem cells were put into a heart scaffold in 2010, they seemed to know just where to go. “They organized themselves in a way I didn’t believe,” said Dr. Taylor, who now works at the Texas Heart Institute but makes regular visits to Madrid to help with the experiments. “It’s amazing that the [scaffold] can be as instructional as it is. Maybe we don’t need to micromanage every aspect of this.”

Dr. Aviles said he hopes to have a working, lab-made version ready in five or six years, but the regulatory and safety hurdles for putting such an organ in a patient will be high. The most realistic scenario, he said, is that “in about 10 years” his lab will be transplanting heart parts.

He and his team already have grown early-stage valves and patches that could be used some day to repair tissue damaged by heart attack..  The Madrid lab has made only baby steps toward its grand plan to grow a human heart using the same techniques that Dr. Taylor pioneered with a rat heart.

“We opened the door and showed it was possible,” she said. “This is no longer science-fiction. It’s becoming science.”

A version of this article appeared March 22, 2013, on page A1 in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, with the headline: Science Fiction Comes Alive As Researchers Grow Organs in Lab.

STEM CELL THERAPY INCREASES SUCCESS RATE OF LIVER TRANSPLANTS

In ALL ARTICLES, STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on March 20, 2013 at 9:00 am

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Stem cell therapy is new hope for liver transplant patients

Stem cell therapy has been found useful in over 60 per cent of the patients due for liver transplant, as per a paper submitted by doctors at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital in Delhi recently. Not only is the treatment less cumbersome and risky, its cost is also comparatively very reasonable.

According to the paper’s principal author and chairman of the Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases at the Hospital, Dr. Anil Arora, a large number of patients requiring liver transplantation cannot afford it for two reasons – cost and donor availability.

In view of the logistical problems faced by such patients, Dr. Arora said: “We started looking at the feasibility of alternative methods like using reserve cells in the body for such treatment, as it costs even less.  Some of these cells can be mobilized from the bone marrow as it has the capacity to regenerate the cells. So we stimulate the bone marrow by an injection.”

“This injection is given for five days and it mobilizes the bone marrow and some of the cells. They then come into the blood circulation. In the study we tried to filter these cells from the blood marrow using a specialized filtering machine and the concentrate of these cells. About 5 ml to 10 ml of the blood containing these concentrated group of cells were then injected into the hepatic artery, which supplies blood to the liver,” explained Dr. Arora. He said this process was carried out by a number of different mechanisms and it proved quite successful. “We started about two years ago and finished last year. Then these patients were followed up for another one year and we were happy to see a significant proportion of the patients having substantial improvement in the liver functions as assessed by a score called ‘Child score’.”

Dr. Arora said, “All patients tolerated the treatment well without any side effects. Of the 10 patients, six to seven benefited. So we believe that more frequent administration of the stem cells in large number might have a more beneficial impact.”

While the study by the Sir Ganga Ram Hospital team was published this year and was approved by the Department of Biotechnology and Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, Dr. Arora said there is also other published data now which calls for “stimulating the bone marrow and letting the cells automatically go into the liver”. By this, he said, you avoid filtering and putting the blood with the stem cells into the liver. “This is also equally beneficial.”

Dr. Arora said stem cell therapy “might act as a bridge for liver transplant” and can provide some time to the patients to arrange for treatment. But just like a damaged car tire, he said, a damaged liver after minor repairs has to be replaced. “However, if a person stops taking liquor or if the therapy goes on well, then a patient can lead a healthy life for many more years.”

http://www.thehindu.com

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