DAVID GRANOVSKY

Posts Tagged ‘mice’

NOW YOU DON’T SEE IT- NOW YOU DO

In ALL ARTICLES, SCIENCE & STEM CELLS on July 10, 2014 at 9:39 am

Now You Don’t See it- Now You Do
Author: Sarah Hoffman

660_Mans_Eye.jpg

“Boston researchers have successfully regrown human corneal tissue – a feat that could potentially restore vision in the blind.

The achievement also marks one of the first times that scientists have constructed tissue using adult-derived human stem cells.-Researchers Regrow Corneas Using Adult Human Stem Cells’. FoxNews.com

Researchers recently made great strides in the field of regrowing human tissue– this time regrowing a human cornea using adult stem cells. This is an amazing feat. They discovered that not only is it possible to regrow a cornea using cells from the functioning eye of someone who is blind in only one eye, but they can also transplant cells from a donor and regrow that way. They tested all this on mice, but used human adult stem cells. This is pretty darn cool.

And why is this possible now? Well the original hold up was their inability to harvest a specific molecule called ABCB5, which is necessary when growing corneal tissue. These researchers discovered that a high concentration of these molecules can be found in the eyes limbus (basically the white part of your eye), which in hindsight makes perfect sense. Unfortunately these cells die when the eye goes blind, but people suffering from blindness have one good eye full of these little miracle-workers. And those with blindness in both eyes can receive a transplant, though they may need immune-suppression.

These leaves only one obvious question to be answered– do these mice see as mice see? Or do they now see as us humans do? Philosophical input is welcome…

WHAT DOES THE FOXO1 SAY? HERE’S MORE INSULIN!

In ALL ARTICLES, BUSINESS OF STEM CELLS on July 5, 2014 at 10:20 am
It May Take Guts to Cure Diabetes -Human GI Cells Retrained to Produce Insulin

Imagine taking cells from your gastrointestinal tract and then switching off one gene, the FOXO1 gene, and then ending up with insulin producing cells.  From gut cell to diabetes fighter in one easy gene switch-off.  Scientists did this successfully in 2012 in mice and recently in humans.  What does the FOXO1 say? ‘Here’s more insulin!’  Awesome.

The next step is where it gets…awkward.  I’d like this information to generate a gene therapy protocol or to improve success rates in stem cell/Diabetes treatment protocols,  etc.  But that’s not the way our system works.  The next step is to find a drug that inhibits the FOXO1 gene so it “…could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin…”  Unfortunately, this drug will also have side effects as all drugs do which will create other symptoms requiring other drugs to mitigate.  And so it goes.

When will US Diabetes patients be able to benefit from a medical protocol based on this discovery?  An educated guess puts it at:
7-10 years for clinical trials and drug development for a name brand Pharma product and then 10-15 years for the drug patent to open up to an affordable generic.
Sorry Diabetes patients.

New York, NY (June 30, 2014) “By switching off a single gene, scientists at Columbia University’s Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin…The Columbia researchers were able to teach human gut cells to make insulin in response to physiological circumstances by deactivating the cells’ FOXO1 gene.”

Stem Cells Improve Cognition After Brain Injury | Beyond the Dish

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on November 5, 2013 at 2:20 pm
http://repairstemcell.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/8c5a1-strokebrainimage.jpg?w=249&h=332
Stem Cells Improve Cognition After Brain Injury

Research led by Charles Cox at the University of Texas Health Science Center has shown that stem cell therapy given during the critical time window after traumatic brain injury promotes lasting cognitive improvement. These experiments, which were published in the latest issue of the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine, provide a pre-clinical model for experiments with larger animals.

After the brain has suffered a traumatic injury, there are few treatment options. Damage to the brain can be severe, and can also cause ongoing neurological impairment. Approximately half of all patients with severe head injuries need surgery to remove or repair ruptured blood vessels or bruised brain tissue.

In this work from Cox’s lab, stem cells from bone marrow known as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) were used. MAPCs seem to be a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells, and they have a documented ability to reduce inflammation in mice immediately after traumatic brain injury. Unfortunately, no one has measured the ability of MAPCs to improve the condition of the brain over time.

Cox, Distinguished Professor of Pediatric Surgery at the UTHealth Medical School and in collaboration with the Children’s Fund, Inc., injected two groups of brain-injured mice with MAPCs two hours after injury and then once again 24 hours later. One group received a dose of 2 million cells per kilogram and the other a dose five times greater.

After four months, those mice that had received the stronger dose not only continued to have less inflammation, but they also showed significant gains in cognitive function. Laboratory examination of the brains of these rodents confirmed that those that had received the higher dose of MAPCs had better brain function than those that had received the lower dose.

According to Cox, “Based on our data, we saw improved spatial learning, improved motor deficits and fewer active antibodies in the mice that were given the stronger concentration of MAPCs.” Cox also indicated that this study indicates that intravenous injection of MAPCs might very well become a viable treatment for people with traumatic brain injury in the future.

 

Stem Cells Improve Cognition After Brain Injury | Beyond the Dish.

A TREATMENT FOR ALS? Neural stem cell transplants slow progression of disease

In SCIENCE & STEM CELLS, VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on January 3, 2013 at 2:33 pm
A treatment for ALS?
Neural stem cell transplants slow progression of disease

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“The transplanted neural stem cells help by producing factors that preserve the health and function of the host’s remaining nerve cells. They also reduce inflammation and suppress the number of disease-causing cells in the host’s spinal cord. The neural stem cells did not replace deteriorating nerve cells in the mice with ALS.  Researchers observed improved motor performance and respiratory function in the treated mice. The neural stem cell transplant also slowed the disease’s progression.

Twenty-five percent of the treated ALS mice in the study survived for one year or more — roughly three to four times longer than the untreated mice.”

Results from a meta-analysis of 11 independent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research studies are giving hope to the ALS community by showing, for the first time, that the fatal disease may be treatable.

Researchers say progress in treating ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, may be made by targeting new mechanisms revealed by neural stem cell-based studies.

“This significant research will help us better understand the mechanisms underlying motor neuron diseases,” said Yang (Ted) Teng, Harvard Medical School associate professor of surgery at the Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital and one of the study’s co-lead authors. Teng is also director of the Spinal Cord Injury and Stem Cell Biology Research Laboratory in the Department of Neurosurgery at Brigham and Women’s.

The research studies were conducted at Brigham and Women’s; the Harvard affiliates Children’s Hospital Boston and Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System; Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute; University of Massachusetts Medical School; Johns Hopkins University; State University of New York Upstate Medical University; and Columbia University.

“This is not a cure for ALS. But it shows the potential that mechanisms used by neural stem cells in our study have for improving an ALS patient’s quality of life and length of life,” said Yang (Ted) Teng, one of the principal investigators of Project ALS’ consortium project. File photo by Justin Ide/Harvard Staff Photographer

ALS causes nerve cells in the spinal cord to die, eventually taking away a person’s ability to move or even breathe. A decade of research conducted at multiple institutions showed, however, that when neural stem cells were transplanted into multilevels of the spinal cord of a mouse model with familial ALS, disease onset and progression slowed, motor and breathing function improved, and treated mice survived three to four times longer than untreated mice.

A summary of the findings from all 11 studies was published online in December in Science Translational Medicine.

“This work sheds new light on detrimental roles played by non-neuronal cells in triggering motor neuron death, and these events should be targeted for developing more effective therapeutics to treat ALS,” Teng said.

The transplanted neural stem cells help by producing factors that preserve the health and function of the host’s remaining nerve cells. They also reduce inflammation and suppress the number of disease-causing cells in the host’s spinal cord. The neural stem cells did not replace deteriorating nerve cells in the mice with ALS.

Researchers observed improved motor performance and respiratory function in the treated mice. The neural stem cell transplant also slowed the disease’s progression. Twenty-five percent of the treated ALS mice in the study survived for one year or more — roughly three to four times longer than the untreated mice.

“This is not a cure for ALS,” said Teng, who is one of the principal investigators of Project ALS’ consortium project. “But it shows the potential that mechanisms used by neural stem cells in our study have for improving an ALS patient’s quality of life and length of life.”

To read the full story, visit the Harvard Medical School website.

Embryonic stem cells restore hearing in deaf gerbils BUT…

In STEM CELLS IN THE NEWS on September 14, 2012 at 12:46 pm
What sounds like great news may actually be barely worth mentioning.  Embryonic stem cells restored hearing in gerbils.  So, what are the problems??
  • Embryonic stem cell causes cysts, tumors and teratomas (monster tumors)
  • The cysts, tumors and teratomas may develop into cancer
  • The mice had to be put on immunosuppressive drugs to control the transplant rejection issues
  • The mice absorb the genetic anomalies of the donor cells
  • The mice may still experience rejection or GVHD
The good news is, the regrowth of the sense of hearing has been proven possible once again, as has been done with ADULT stem cell treatments which have none of the above limitations.   One more point…

  • The type of deafness treated in this study accounts for only 1% of deaf people (‘because the “exquisite architecture” of the inner ear can be damaged in many different ways, ”there won’t be one cure for hearing loss, there will be a variety of interventions tailored to unique conditions”’)
Let’s hope these variety of interventions include ADULT stem cells.  History of ADULT stem cells and deafness – https://repairstemcell.wordpress.com/hearing-disorders/
Neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells have restored hearing to deaf gerbils.  The research offers hope to deaf people unable to be helped by current technology.

A cure for deafness caused by auditory neuropathy is one step closer, after a breakthrough in stem cell therapy by UK researchers. Published online before print in the 12 September online issue of the prestigious scientific journal Nature, researchers from the University of Sheffield describe how they successfully restored hearing to previously deaf gerbils using human embryonic stem cells.

Stem-cell biologist Marcelo Rivolta led the project, which brings hope to some of the 275 million people worldwide with moderate-to-profound hearing loss, many of whom have it as a result of a defect in the auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve or acoustic nerve, which causes a faulty link between the inner ear and the brain. This new discovery opens the doors to a possible new way of treating deafness in a group of people who are unable to be helped by existing technology and treatments.

“We have the proof of concept that we can use human embryonic stem cells to repair the damaged ear,” says lead author Marcelo Rivolta “More work needs to be done, but now we know it’s possible.”

The first stem cell-based treatments for hearing loss are likely to be at least 15 years away though. According to Stefan Heller, a stem-cell researcher at Stanford University in California who is also working on differentiating cells involved in hearing…

Human stem cells restore hearing in deaf gerbils – National health | Examiner.com.

Men Replaced: Killing Spiders Not Enough

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on January 24, 2012 at 4:20 am
Researchers to build artificial testicles for infertile men
San Francisco – Researchers in California are working to build an artificial testicle, a human “sperm-making biological machine,” that can produce human sperm and allow otherwise infertile men to make babies.
According to My Health News Daily, Dr. Paul Turek, director of the Turek Clinic, a men’s health medical practice in San Francisco, says that recent advances show that the idea of treating infertility in male animals by producing sperm using stem cells is feasible. While this has been done successfully in mice, it has not been done in humans.
Turek recently announced on his Turek on Men’s Health site that he has received a government grant to develop a human “sperm-making biological machine.” According to My Health News Daily, Turek and his colleague, Dr. Constance John, chief executive of MandalMed Inc., a biotech company in San Francisco, received a small research grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Turek says the new “machine” will not be designed to resemble a testicle like non-sperm-producing prosthesis that are saline-filled implant for men who don’t have testicles. Rather, the sperm producing machine will come as a cylindrical bag a few inches in length and will look “like a transparent, over-sized Tootsie Roll.”
Turek on Men’s Health explains: “To be clear, this grant is not about creating a testicular implant for a man who is missing a real one. We did that a decade or so ago. This award is to develop a sperm making biological machine…We now have a couple of years to create human artificial sperm in a dish, or more formally, a ‘bioreactor,’ a fancy dish to be sure.” …

Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/318149#ixzz1kHKdE2hL

CellNEWS: Bone Marrow-derived Cells Differentiate in the Brain through Mechanisms of Plasticity

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on January 20, 2012 at 9:19 am

“This study shows a potential new contribution of bone marrow derived cells following transplantation into the brain, making these cells highly versatile, in their ability to both differentiate into and fuse with endogenous neurons

Bone Marrow-derived Cells Differentiate in the Brain through Mechanisms of Plasticity
Monday, 19 December 2011

Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs) have been recognized as a source for transplantation because they can contribute to different cell populations in a variety of organs under both normal and pathological conditions. Many BMDC studies have been aimed at repairing damaged brain tissue or helping to restore lost neural function, with much research focused on BMDC transplants to the cerebellum at the back of the brain. In a recent study, a research team from Spain has found that BMDCs, can contribute to a variety of neural cell types in other areas of the brain as well, including the olfactory bulb, because of a mechanism of “plasticity”.
Their results are published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (20:8).
“To our knowledge, ours is the first work reporting the BMDC’s contribution to the olfactory neurons,” said study corresponding author Dr. Eduardo Weruaga of the University of Salamanca, Spain.
“We have shown for the first time how BMDCs contribute to the central nervous system in different ways in the same animal depending on the region and cell-specific factors.”
In this study, researchers grafted bone marrow cells into mutant mice suffering from the degeneration of specific neuronal populations at different ages, then compared them to similarly transplanted healthy controls. An increase in the number of BMDCs was found along the lifespan in both experimental groups. Six weeks after transplantation, however, more bone marrow-derived microglial cells were observed in the olfactory bulbs of the test animals where the degeneration of mitral cells was still in progress. The difference was not observed in the cerebellum where cell degeneration had been completed.
“Our findings demonstrate that the degree of neurodegenerative environment can foster the recruitment of neural elements derived from bone marrow,” explained Dr. Weruaga.
“But we also have provided the first evidence that BMDCs can contribute simultaneously to different encephalic areas through different mechanisms of plasticity – cell fusion for Purkinje cells – among the largest and most elaborately dendritic neurons in the human brain – and differentiation for olfactory bulb interneurons.”
Dr. Weruaga noted that they confirmed that BMDCs fuse with Purkinje cells but, unexpectedly, they found that the neurodegenerative environment had no effect on the behavior of the BMDCs.
“Interestingly, the contribution of BMDCs occurred through these two different plasticity mechanisms, which strongly suggests that plasticity mechanisms may be modulated by region and cell type-specific factors,” he said.
“This study shows a potential new contribution of bone marrow derived cells following transplantation into the brain, making these cells highly versatile, in their ability to both differentiate into and fuse with endogenous neurons” said Dr. Paul R. Sanberg , coeditor-in-chief of Cell Transplantation and distinguished professor of Neuroscience at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, University of South Florida.
Source: Cell Transplantation Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair

Contact: David Eve

Reference:

Bone Marrow Contributes Simultaneously to Different Neural Types in the Central Nervous System Through Different Mechanisms of Plasticity
Recio, J. S.; Álvarez-Dolado, M.; Díaz, D.; Baltanás, F. C.; Piquer-Gil, M.; Alonso, J. R.; Werunga, E.
Cell Transplant. 20(8):1179-1192; 2011

CellNEWS: Bone Marrow-derived Cells Differentiate in the Brain through Mechanisms of Plasticity.

Experts grow whole tooth units using mouse stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on July 12, 2011 at 6:57 pm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old news, I covered this story and other similar stories as far back as August of 2009 (see below)…but they are just picking it up now so I thought I would post it.  CATCH UP!!!!  –  DSG

 

Experts grow whole tooth units using mouse stem cells – Reuters
Credit: Reuters/Dr. Takashi Tsuji/Tokyo University of Science/Handout By Tan Ee Lyn HONG KONG (Reuters) – Scientists in Japan said on Wednesday they have created teeth — complete with connective fibers and bones — by using mouse stem cells and 

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New Teeth From Stem Cells in Mice

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on August 25, 2009 at 10:11 pm

Teeth have been grown from stem cell “seeds” and planted in the mouths of mice, scientists from Tokyo University reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They hope it could lead to replacing teeth in humans, or even to rebuilding whole organs.

The Japanese scientists developed a bioengineered “tooth germ” — a seed-like package containing all the cells and instructions necessary to form a tooth…


Scientists grow fully functional tooth from stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on September 8, 2009 at 1:18 pm

Scientists grow fully functional tooth from stem cells

August 22, 4:12 PMNY Holistic Body & Spirit ExaminerTima Vlasto

Though teeth have been grown in mice before, scientists revealed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences their success at growing a “fully functional” tooth from stem cells in mice…

 

 

A denture-free world with adult stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on September 13, 2009 at 1:35 pm

bush stole my denturesNova Southeastern University’s dental researchers at the College of Dental Medicine are growing and harvesting human dental stem cells in the laboratory.A 2009 NSU survey of dentists around the nation revealed that more than half thought that they would be using stem cell and tissue engineering therapies on their patients within the next decade.

An overwhelming 96 percent of dentists believe the ability to regenerate and replace teeth and dental tissues is the future of dentistry, according to the survey…

 

Jaw bone created from (patient’s own) stem cells

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on April 21, 2010 at 5:13 pm

Jaw bone created from (patient’s own) stem cells – BBC NEWS | Health | – New bone created in the lab

The new bone was created from bone marrow stem cells

Scientists have created part of the jaw joint in the lab using human adult stem cells.

Two points from me:

1. Cloning, shmoning! The facts is, they have already created hearts, windpipes and jawbones from adult stem cells. No clones needed, no rejection issues, no transplants, no immunosuppressive drugs,….we can just make the bone, organ, teeth, etc that fit perfectly into your body because they are made from your body (and from your own stem cells)…

 

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on May 24, 2010 at 7:37 pm

I met with Dr. Mao last summer and I found his presentation fascinating and informative.  Imagine taking stem cells from your own body and regrowing your won teeth. No dentures, crowns, implants, foreign materials, etc. etc.  Imagine; tooth regeneration from your own body, for your own body.  -dg

Monday, May 24, 2010

Body’s Own Stem Cells Can Lead to Tooth Regeneration

A technique pioneered in the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory of Dr. Jeremy Mao, the Edward V. Zegarelli Professor of Dental Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, can orchestrate stem cells to migrate to a 3-D scaffold infused with growth factor, holding the translational potential to yield an anatomically correct tooth in as soon as nine weeks once implanted…

BBC News – Chemical found which ‘makes bone marrow repair skin’

In ALL ARTICLES on April 6, 2011 at 2:06 pm

‘Chemical found which ‘makes bone marrow repair skin’

Healing skin graft
Skin grafts trigger repair by bone marrow cells

The chemical which summons stem cells from bone marrow to the site of a wound has been discovered by scientists in the UK and Japan.

The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, identified the distress signal – HMGB1.

The authors believe it can be used to put “a megaphone in the system” to improve the treatment of injuries such as burns and leg ulcers.

Another UK expert said the research had potential.

Bone marrow was thought to play a role in repairing damaged skin, but the exact process was unknown.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/genome/guide/img/GreenMouseAdult.gif

Scientists at Osaka University and King’s College London gave mice bone marrow cells that glow green – which can be tracked while moving round the body…

BBC News – Chemical found which ‘makes bone marrow repair skin’.

How nasal stem cells might prevent childhood deafness

In VICTORIES & SUCCESS STORIES on March 31, 2011 at 12:35 pm
Australia is starting to catch up.  This procedure has been done in Asia, Europe and South America…just not in the USA or Australia. – dg
How nasal stem cells might prevent childhood deafness

Australian scientists have shown for the first time in mice that nasal stem cells injected into the inner ear have the potential to reverse or restore hearing during early onset sensorineural hearing loss.

Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when hearing cells in the cochlea lose their function. Frequently inherited, and usually starting during infancy and early childhood, the condition can slow a child’s development and lead to speech and language problems.

Drs Jeremy Sullivan, Sonali Pandit and Sharon Oleskevich from Sydney’s Garvan Institute of Medical Research, found that stem cells appear to release ‘factors’, or chemical substances, that help preserve the function of cochlear hearing cells, without the stem cells becoming part of the tissue of the inner ear. Their findings are published in STEM CELLS, now online.

“We are exploring the potential of stem cells to prevent or restore hearing loss in people,” said project leader Dr Sharon Oleskevich.

“The mice we are using have a very similar form of childhood deafness to their human counterparts – except, of course that mouse years are shorter. So a mouse will tend to lose their hearing within 3 months, where a person might take 8 years.”

“We are encouraged by our initial findings, because all the mice injected with stem cells showed improved hearing in comparison with those given a sham injection. Roughly half of the mice did very well indeed, although it is important to note that hearing was not completely restored to normal hearing levels.”

Adult human nasal stem cells were used in the procedure, because they are plentiful, easy to obtain and unspecialised (so have the ability to self-renew for long periods, as well as differentiate into cells with a variety of functions).

The same group of scientists has shown in previous publications that stem cells can also be used to improve hearing in noise-induced hearing loss – a condition that affects both young and older people.

It has taken 5 years to reach the current stage of research, and scientists anticipate that it will take a further decade at least for the findings to benefit people.

How nasal stem cells might prevent childhood deafness – insciences.

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